Background Information Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia has a unique geographical location, they occupy four-fifths ofArea of the Arabian Peninsula, which lies at the heart of the world, and at the junction of Garath, inSouth-western corner of the continent of Asia, and in return for the African continent.Limits the Kingdom of the West: Red Sea and the East: Persian Gulf, Bahrain,Qatar, United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman, and is bordered to the north: Kuwait,Iraq, Jordan, and South Yemen and Oman.The length of the borders of the Kingdom 6760 kilometers, of which 2330 kilometers of maritime boundaries.
CapitalRiyadhPopulation17,050,934 according to 1992 estimatesArea of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia2,331,000 square kilometers which is equivalent to 900.000 square milesType of GovernmentOwnershipHead of stateCustodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al SaudThe official languageArabic, but English is used extensivelyIn trade and businessThe official religionIslam .
History • At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have suzerainty (albeit nominal) over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers (including the House of Saud who had returned from exile in 1902) with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state. Although the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, Arabia was freed from Ottoman suzerainty and control by the latter's defeat in World War I
In 1902, Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, leader of the House of Saud, had seized Riyadh in Nejd from the Al Rashid – the first of a series of conquests ultimately leading to the creation of the modern state of Saudi Arabia in 1932. The main weapon for achieving these conquests was the Ikhwan, the Wahhabist-Bedouin tribal army led by Sultan ibnBijad and Faisal Al-Dawish. From the Saudi core in Nejd, and aided by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the Ikhwan had completed the conquest of the territory that was to become Saudi Arabia by the end of 1925. On 10 January 1926 Abdul-Aziz declared himself King of the Hejaz and, then, on 27 January 1927 he took the title of King of Nejd (his previous title having been 'Sultan'). After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leaders wanted to continue the expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. Abdul-Aziz, however, refused to agree to this, recognizing the danger of a direct conflict with the British. The Ikhwan therefore revolted but were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla in 1930, where the Ikhwan leadership were massacred. • In 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[
Culture • Islam • Islam is practised by all Saudis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. Islam was born in Saudi Arabia and thus is visited by millions of Muslims every year. The Prophet Muhammad is seen as the last of God's emissaries (following in the footsteps of Jesus, Moses, Abraham, etc) to bring revelation to mankind. He was distinguished with bringing a message for the whole of mankind, rather than just to a certain peoples. As Moses brought the Torah and Jesus the Bible, Muhammad brought the last book, the Quran. The Quran and the actions of the Prophet (the Sunnah) are used as the basis for all guidance in the religion. • Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. The exact time is listed in the local newspaper each day. Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed. Many companies also close on Thursday, making the weekend Thursday and Friday. • During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing. Expatriates are not required to fast; however, they must not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum in public. • Each night at sunset, families and friends gather together to celebrate the breaking of the fast (iftar). The festivities often continue well into the night. In general, things happen more slowly during Ramadan. Many businesses operate on a reduced schedule. Shops may be open and closed at unusual times
During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing. Expatriates are not required to fast; however, they must not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum in public. • Each night at sunset, families and friends gather together to celebrate the breaking of the fast (iftar). The festivities often continue well into the night. In general, things happen more slowly during Ramadan. Many businesses operate on a reduced schedule. Shops may be open and closed at unusual times
Education • Umm Al-Qura University, 14510• Islamic University 5830• University of Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University 30505• King Saud University, 14055• University of King Abdul Aziz 36750• King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 3450• King Faisal University, 19924• King Khalid University, 19745• Qassim University, 11203• University of Thebes 18460• University of Taif 13990• University of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences 405• University of Jazan 15490• Hail University, 8285• Al-Jouf University, 7985• University of Tabuk 7465• University of Baha 5185• University of Najran 6965• University of Princess Noura Abdul Rahman girl 8420• University of Northern Border 5880• University of Al-Kharj 6047• University of blonde 6310• University of consolidated 3840• University of Dammam, 7500• Total seats: 278 199
Famous people Abdul Aziz bin Saud first king of Saudi Arabia King Abdullah with former US President George W. Bush
Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, the country's most senior religious authority Yasser Qahtani, the most famous player in Saudi Arabia
Tourist atractions • The Holy City of Makkah, which lies inland 73 kilometers east of Jiddah, is the place where the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was born - the place where God's message was first revealed to him and the city to which he returned after the migration to Madinah in 622 AD. • Makkah is the holiest city on earth to Muslims. Five times each day, the world's one billion Muslims, wherever they may be, turn to the Holy City of Makkah to pray. And at least once in their lives, all Muslims who are not prevented by personal circumstance perform the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah. Thus each year the Holy City of Makkah is host to some two million hajjis (pilgrims) from all over the world.