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Ebola Virus Disease. EVD Description. Hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rate up to 90% Endemic areas: Central and West Africa Wildlife reservoir: bats implicated No cases in humans ever reported in U.S. Transmission.

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evd description
EVD Description
  • Hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rate up to 90%
  • Endemic areas: Central and West Africa
  • Wildlife reservoir: bats implicated
  • No cases in humans ever reported in U.S.
transmission
Transmission
  • Direct contact with bodily fluids from infected person or contaminated objects (e.g. needles)
  • Incubation period: usually 8-10 days (range 2-21 days)
  • High-risk individuals
    • Health care workers
    • Family members or others in close contact with EVD patients
  • Can spread quickly in health care settings
signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
  • Early signs non-specific: fever, malaise, weakness, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Late signs: bleeding, multi-organ dysfunction leading to shock and death
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Complicated by non-specific early symptoms
  • BSL-3 lab required (BSL-4 for virus isolation)
response
Response
  • Treatment
    • Supportive only
    • Prompt treatment important
  • Prevention
    • Standard, contact, droplet precautions
    • Contact tracing, monitoring for 21 day incubation period
    • Immediate isolation of ill contacts
    • Disinfection of contaminated surfaces, objects by standard methods
    • No vaccine available
public health messaging
Public Health Messaging
  • Identify population at-risk: those with recent history of travelto endemic areas
  • Health care providers
    • Should have low threshold of suspicion among travelers returning from endemic areas
    • Barrier precautions successfully prevent spread
  • Travelers
    • Should be aware of risk of EVD in endemic areas
    • Avoid exposure to risk factors (caves or mines inhabited by bats, healthcare settings where EVD is present, close contact with EVD patients)