Certificatie van glazen cockpits
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Certificatie van glazen cockpits. Peter Broos en Ron van de Leijgraaf. Overzicht. Introductie Avionics certificatie Flight certificatie Enkele slot opmerkingen. Inleiding. Toename van geïntegreerde cockpit systemen in commuter aircraft en general aviation

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Certificatie van glazen cockpits

Certificatie van glazen cockpits

Peter Broos

en

Ron van de Leijgraaf


Overzicht
Overzicht

  • Introductie

  • Avionics certificatie

  • Flight certificatie

  • Enkele slot opmerkingen


Inleiding
Inleiding

  • Toename van geïntegreerde cockpit systemen in commuteraircraft en generalaviation

  • Tot voor kort dergelijke systemen alleen bij transportvliegtuigen

  • Technische eisen moeten aangepast worden

    • Eisen uit CS 25 naar CS 23


Avionica certificatie
Avionica certificatie

  • Een dergelijke cockpit installatie is een complex systeem

  • Tot voor kort dergelijke systemen niet in generalaviation

  • Belangrijkste set van eisen:

    • Systeem moet doen waar het voor ontworpen is (xx.1301)

    • Faalkans van het systeem moet omgekeerd evenredig zijn met de ernst van de gevolgen van het falen (xx.1309)

  • Detail eisen voor componenten

  • Eisen ‘lenen’ van large transport aircraft (bijv. HMI)


Ivw easa flight test
IVW - EASA Flight Test

EASA Flight Test Team

  • Test Pilot

  • Flight Test Engineer

    Responsibilities

  • Handling

  • Performance

  • Human Factors


Recent certification projects
Recent Certification projects

CS 25 Large Aeroplanes

  • Boeing 747-8

  • Gulfstream G 280

    CS 23 Small Aeroplanes

  • Cessna Citation Mustang

  • Citation Proline 21

  • Eclipse 500


Eclipse 500
Eclipse 500

Avio NG

Main features

  • Three Display Cockpit

  • Three Multi Function Displays

  • Bezel Button Control

  • Dual (Redundant) Flight Management Systems (FMS)

  • Auto Throttles

  • Synthetic Vision

  • Enhanced Vision


Cessna citation mustang
Cessna Citation Mustang

Garmin G1000

Main features

  • Three Display Cockpit

  • Dual TFT LCD Control Display Units Primary Flight Displays

  • Single TFT LCD Control Display Multi-Function Display

  • Single Remote Flight Management System

  • Control keyboard

  • Three Axis Automatic Flight Control System


Gulfstream g280
Gulfstream G280

Rockwell Collins Proline Fusion

Main Features

  • Seven Display Cockpit

  • Three Multi Function Displays with four individual configurable windows on each display

  • Dual Standby MFD

  • Dual Control Display Units

  • Dual Multi Function Controller

  • Dual Fail-active 3–axis Autopilot

  • Auto Throttles

  • Optional HUD, EVS and SVS


What is new
What is “new”?

  • Highly Integrated systems

  • Loads of functionality

  • New Crew interfaces

  • Lots of Gadgets

  • Many different ways to use

  • Complex failure modes

    Hence:

  • No simple Evaluation


Human factors
Human Factors

  • Most Manufacturers believe they are on top of the HF subject

  • The common opinion is that the HF subject is sufficiently covered during the design process

  • Very few manufacturers approach the HF subject in a structured manner

  • Changing this attitude still is a big issue on the side of the certification authorities


Workload 1
Workload (1)

CS 25.1523

Minimum Flight Crew

To determine the workload the following needs to be representative:

  • Test Crews

  • Test conditions

  • Flight Profiles

  • Procedures


Workload 2
Workload (2)

Results

  • Workload measures

  • Success Criteria

  • Risk Assessment


Crew error 1
Crew Error (1)

  • All Systems are allowed to fail according to a certain probability (avionics)

  • In this case the pilot needs to solve the problem by correctly executing the appropriate procedures

  • Even if the aircraft is on fire, or the battery life is just sufficient to operate the aircraft for half an hour including engine control at FL 410, the pilot is not assumed to make an error using a complex procedure.


Crew error 2
Crew Error (2)

Goal of HF proces

  • Identification of potential hazardous conditions resulting from the use of any new and novel flight deck equipment, or proneness to crew error per CS 25.1302

  • CS 25.1302 AMC 25.1302

  • Installed Systems and Equipment for Use by the Flight Crew

  • TABLE OF CONTENT

  • 1. Purpose

  • 2. Background

  • 3. Scope and Assumptions

  • 4. Certification Planning

  • 5. Design Considerations and Guidance

  • 6. Means of Compliance


Testing
Testing

  • mock-ups,

  • part-task simulations

  • Avionic Benches

  • Full simulations,

  • In-flight evaluations


Tot slot
Tot slot

  • Glazen cockpit is een complex systeem

  • Vraagt om vergelijkbare certificatie eisen

  • Opties in het systeem lijken eindeloos

  • Groot risico hiervan is dat vlieger ‘de weg kwijt raakt in het systeem’