Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases
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Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Arthropod-Borne (Arbo) Viral Diseases

The arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are a group of infectious agents that are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods from one vertebrate host to another. They can multiply in the tissues of the arthropod without evidence of disease or damage. The vector acquires a lifelong infection through the ingestion of blood from a viremic vertebrate. All arboviruses have an RNA genome, and most have a lipid-containing envelope and consequently are inactivated by ether or sodium deoxycholate.










Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

FIGURE Alphavirus transmission. Virus abbreviations: Chik, chickungunya; RR, Ross River; May, Mayaro; ONN, O'nyong-nyong; SIN, Sindbis; EEE, eastern equine encephalitis; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Rubellaviruses

Rubella (German measles) is a common mild disease characterized by a rash. It affects children and adolescents worldwide and can also affect young adults. When rubella virus infects susceptible women early in pregnancy, it may be transmitted to the fetus and may cause birth defects. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is critical in pregnancy. The rubella virus is a member of the genus Rubivirus in the family Togaviridae.




Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

FIGURE. Clinical findings, virus shedding, and serologic response

in postnatally acquired rubella.










Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Figure 5. The scheme of Flavivirus replication


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Virions are formed in perinuclear regions of the cytoplasm in association with Golgi or smooth membranes (Figure 6). Virions appear within cytoplasmic vacuoles and appear to exit the cell as vacuoles fuse with the plasma membrane. Unlike alphaviruses, no evidence of budding has been seen in flavivirus-infected cells, and the mechanisms of virion assembly and release remain obscure.

FIGURE 6. Morphogenesis of flaviviruses


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Principal medically important flaviviruses in association with Golgi or smooth membranes (Figure 6). Virions appear within cytoplasmic vacuoles and appear to exit the cell as vacuoles fuse with the plasma membrane. Unlike alphaviruses, no evidence of budding has been seen in flavivirus-infected cells, and the mechanisms of virion assembly and release remain obscure.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Principal medically important flaviviruses in association with Golgi or smooth membranes (Figure 6). Virions appear within cytoplasmic vacuoles and appear to exit the cell as vacuoles fuse with the plasma membrane. Unlike alphaviruses, no evidence of budding has been seen in flavivirus-infected cells, and the mechanisms of virion assembly and release remain obscure.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Principal medically important flaviviruses in association with Golgi or smooth membranes (Figure 6). Virions appear within cytoplasmic vacuoles and appear to exit the cell as vacuoles fuse with the plasma membrane. Unlike alphaviruses, no evidence of budding has been seen in flavivirus-infected cells, and the mechanisms of virion assembly and release remain obscure.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human infection with both mosquito-borne and tick-borne flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).

Figure 7. Pathogenesis of flaviviruses.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Tick flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Yellow fever virus flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Yellow fever flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Dengue fever virus flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Dengue fever flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Bunyaviridae flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). is a family of arthropod-borne or rodent-borne, spherical, enveloped RNA viruses. Bunyaviruses are responsible for a number of febrile diseases in humans and other vertebrates. They have either a rodent host or an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Rift Valley Fever virus flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Human d flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). iseases Caused by Viruses of the Family Bunyaviridae


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

FIGURE 3. flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). Pathogenesis of bunyavirus infections. Humans are dead-end hosts of most bunyaviruses; however, the blood of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patients may be highly infectious.


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

FIGURE 5. La Crosse encephalitis transmission cycle flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Signs of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7).


Arthropod borne arbo viral diseases

Clinics of flaviviruses is initiated by deposition of virus through the skin via the saliva of an infected arthropod (Fig 7). Hataan virus infection