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BIO. 1300/1400 CHAPTER 5—ENZYMES. ENZYME—AN ORGANIC CATALYST—SPEEDS UP A REACTION BUT IS NOT USED UP IN THE REACTION. ENZYMES. THE ENDING OR SUFFIX OF A WORD LETS YOU KNOW IF IT IS THE NAME OF AN ENZYME IF THE WORD ENDS IN –ASE THEN IT IS AN ENZYME—EXAMPLES ARE: SUCRASE LACTASE MALTASE.

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bio 1300 1400 chapter 5 enzymes

BIO. 1300/1400CHAPTER 5—ENZYMES

ENZYME—AN ORGANIC CATALYST—SPEEDS UP A REACTION BUT IS NOT USED UP IN THE REACTION

enzymes
ENZYMES
  • THE ENDING OR SUFFIX OF A WORD LETS YOU KNOW IF IT IS THE NAME OF AN ENZYME
  • IF THE WORD ENDS IN –ASE THEN IT IS AN ENZYME—EXAMPLES ARE:
    • SUCRASE
    • LACTASE
    • MALTASE
energy of activation
ENERGY OF ACTIVATION
  • THE ENERGY OF ACTIVATION IS THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY IT TAKES TO START A REACTION
  • ENZYMES LOWER THE ENERGY OF ACTIVATION
how enzymes work
HOW ENZYMES WORK
  • ENZYMES COMBINE WITH THE SUBSTRATE [REACTANT] TO FORM THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX
  • THE ENZYME HAS A SPECIFIC AREA TO WHICH THE SUBSTRATE ATTACHES CALLED THE BINDING SITE OR ATTACHMENT SITE
  • WHEN THE REACTION IS COMPLETED THEN THE PRODUCTS ARE RELEASED AND THE ENZYME IS FREE TO ACT AGAIN
cofactors coenzymes
COFACTORS/COENZYMES

ADDITIONAL MOLECULES OR COMPOUNDS WHICH ARE NEEDED BY ENZYMES THAT ALLOW THEM TO WORK

ELEMENTS OR ORGANIC MOLECULES ARE COFACTORS

IF THE COFACTOR IS NOT A PROTEIN BUT ANOTHER ORGANIC COMPOUND IT IS CALLED A COENZYME. IT ACTS TO BRING IN PART OF THE SUBSTRATE OR TO REMOVE SOME OF THE END PRODUCTS

ONE EXAMPLE IS CO-ENZYME A WHICH WORKS IN BRINGING CARBONS INTO THE KREB’S CYCLE IN THE MITOCHONDRIA.

factors influencing enzymes temperature and ph
FACTORS INFLUENCING ENZYMES- TEMPERATURE AND pH
  • TEMPERATURE—WITH OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE THE TURNOVER NUMBER IS GREATEST
  • AS TEMPERATURE RISES PAST THE OPTIMUM THEN THE ENZYME IS ALTERED OR DENATURED AND THE TURNOVER NUMBER DECREASES
  • A DENATURED ENZYME HAS ITS PROTEIN STRUCTURE PERMANENTLY CHANGED
factors continued
FACTORS CONTINUED
  • THE ACID-BASE CONDITION OR pH WILL INFLUENCE THE ENZYMES ABILITY TO ACT.
  • THE OPTIMUM pH WILL ALLOW THE GREATEST RATE OF REACTION
  • WHEN THE pH CHANGES THEN THE ENZYME WILL BE DENATURED
cellular control processes and enzymes
CELLULAR CONTROL PROCESSES AND ENZYMES
  • CONTROL PROCESSES IN A CELL ARE LINKED TO THE ENZYMES IN THE CELL AND THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WORK.
  • ENZYMATIC COMPETITION—OCCURS WHEN SEVERAL ENZYMES ARE PRESENT THAT CAN COMBINE WITH THE SAMESUBSTRATE
  • NEGATIVE-FEEDBACK INHIBITION—OCCURS WHEN THE END PRODUCT OF A REACTION FEEDS BACK TO THE FIRST ENZYME OF THE REACTION AND INHIBITS IT FROM WORKING SLOWING DOWN OR STOPPING THE REACTION
  • INHIBITORS ARE MOLECULES WHICH ATTACH TO AN ENZYME AND PREVENT IT FROM WORKING—SOME PESTICIDES WORK THIS WAY. COMPETITIVE INHIBITION –THE INHIBITOR COMPETES WITH THE SUBSTRATE FOR THE ENZYME.