Total Quality Management A. A. Elimam. Definitions of Quality. Conformance to Specifications Value Fitness for Use Support Psychological Impressions. How Quality Assurance Evolved. 1800’s: skilled craftsmen Industrial Revolution: factory System 100% Inspections
Definitions of Quality • Conformance to Specifications • Value • Fitness for Use • Support • Psychological Impressions
How Quality Assurance Evolved • 1800’s: skilled craftsmen • Industrial Revolution: factory System • 100% Inspections • 1900’s: Larger Organizations • 1920’s Bell Lab Statistical Quality Control • Shewhart Control Charts (1924) • Dodge & Romig Acceptance Sampling (1930) • Separate QC department & Manager • World War II: Growing Concern for Quality • Quality Awards in Japan, USA & other countries
Deming Wheel Plan Act Do Check
Continuous Improvement Projects Total time Material Machining Inspection Repair handling Current Reduce Reduce Reduce situation material repair inspection handling time time time Continuous improvement
Costs of Detecting Defects Cost of detection (dollars) Process Final testing Customer When defect is detected
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS • CHECK OR TALLY SHEET • CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM • STATISTICAL TOOLS: HISTOGRAMS, CONTROL CHARTS
Machines Personnel Effect Materials Process Cause-and-EffectDiagrams
Equipment Personnel Passenger processing at gate Aircraft late to gate Other Late cabin cleaners Mechanical failures Unavailable cockpit crew Weather Late cabin crew Air traffic delays Delayed flight departures Poor announcement of departures Late baggage to aircraft Weight/balance sheet late Delayed check-in procedure Late fuel Waiting for late passengers Late food service Procedures Materials King Tut Airlines
Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric //// 4 B. Discolored fabric /// 3 C. Broken fiber board //// //// //// //// //// //// //// / 36 D. Ragged edges //// // 7 Total 50 MINA Fiber Board Co. Checklists
Pareto Chart 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 C Cumulative percentage Number of defects D A B Defect type MINA Fiber Board Co.
70 (64) 60 50 40 Percent defective 30 20 (13) (10) 10 (6) (3) (2) (2) 0 Poor Design Defective parts Operator errors Machine calibrations Defective materials Surface abrasions Wrong dimensions Causes of poor quality A Pareto Chart
Cause-and-Effect Diagram People Materials Training Absenteeism Communication Out of specification Not available Broken fiber board Machine maintenance Machine speed Wrong setup Humidity Schedule changes Other Process MINA Fiber Board Co.
20 15 10 5 0 Bar Chart Number of defects First Second Third Shift MINA Fiber Board Co.
Deming’s 14 Points • Create constancy of purpose • Adopt a new philosophy • Cease dependence on mass inspection • End the practice of buying on price alone • Use statistical methods to find problems and continually improve
Deming’s 14 Points • Institute modern methods of on-the- job training • Improve supervision • Drive out fear • Break down barriers • Eliminate numerical goals and slogans
Deming’s 14 Points • Eliminate work standards that simply set quotas • Remove barriers between employees and their pride of workmanship • Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining • Structure management to continually support these points
Prominent Quality Experts (“Gurus”) • J. M. Juran: focus on quality: • Planning: set quality level & design the production process to achieve it - annual quality program • Control: use SQC to ensure product quality meets standards as while in production • Improvement: Study & analyze problems & implement a remedy. 100’s of Quality Improvements projects going on in a company.
Prominent Quality Experts (“Gurus”) • P.B. Crosby: Quality is free - “absolute Quality management’ • First: Quality - conformance to requirements • Second: Prevention to achieve quality (with the help of SQC) • Third: ZERO defects is achievable • Finally: quality must be measured.
Prominent Quality Experts (“Gurus”) • A. V. Feigenbaum: TQC • all areas in company emphasize quality • quality at the source • quality problems: workers/supervisors stop line
Prominent Quality Experts (“Gurus”) • K. Ishikawa: Quality Circles, Fishbone Diagram & graphical analysis of quality problems • G. Taguchi: Use product & process design to achieve high quality at lowest cost. Quality is achieved with product uniformity around a target • Loss function (all costs of poor quality) • set production process to achieve uniformity
Quality Awards • The Deming Application Prize: (1957) Annual- meet set of standards for successful application of SQC. Three major categories: individuals in Japan, organizations in Japan, overseas organizations.
Quality Awards • The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award: (1987) Given annually to up to 2 companies in manufacturing, service and small business. Criteria include: soundness of approach to quality improvement, quality management program & its implemen- tation and customer satisfaction.
Quality Awards • The president’s Award for Quality: (1988) recognize US federal Government agencies with >500 workers • The IIE Award for Excellence in Productivity Improvement: (1980) • NASA’s Quality and Excellence Award- for quality among suppliers
ISO 9000 Standards • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - 90 member countries • Purpose of ISO: Global agreement on international standards • system to certify suppliers to meet quality management standards
ISO 9000 Standards • First published in 1987 in 4 subsections • ISO 9001: Quality systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design/Development, Production, Installation, and Servicing - widest scope of application • ISO 9002: Quality systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Production and Installation • ISO 9003: Quality systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test • ISO 9004: Quality systems - Quality Management & Quality System Elements - Guidelines
ISO 9000 Accreditation • Originally customers would evaluate the quality systems of their suppliers • Some EC countries (e.g. UK) require an accredited registrar to assess (for a fee) a company’s quality system & its compliance with ISO 9000 • Certificate is issued to company meeting ISO • Company becomes ISO Registrars • In the future virtually all products exported to the EC will require certification
Gaining The Competitive Edge • In the US many of the applicants for the Baldrige Award also apply for ISO 9000 registration. • Two complement each other with the same goals of commitment to total quality & customer satisfaction • ISO 9000: documentation, the standardization and the common language needed to establish a quality management system • The Baldrige criteria focus more on continuous improvement, measurement of processes and strategic planning