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The Java Persistence API

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  1. The Java Persistence API Edel Sherratt

  2. Contents • Revisit applications programming • Using Java Persistence API

  3. Applications Programming Alternatives • Extend a high level language by embedding SQL statements in it • Extend SQL with programming language constructs • Provide a call level interface (CLI) from a programming language

  4. Applications Programming with a Call Level Interface • Obtain a handle on the database • Send SQL queries to the database management system using query functions • Process the results of those queries • Results are tables and must be transformed into types that the application program can use • Use a cursor to access rows of the result set • Fetch each row in turn; represent as an array or associative array or other suitable structure

  5. PHP connection to a database • Obtain a database handle: e.g., pg_connect, mysql_connect, sqlite_open • Execute queries: e.g. pg_query, sqlite_query, mysql_query • Process results of the query: e.g. mysql_fetch_array, pg_fetch_array, sqlite_fetch_array, and many others

  6. Java JDBC • Driver manager provides implementations of Connection, Statement and ResultSet • Connection acts as database handle • Statement enables creation and execution of SQL queries • ResultSet maintains a cursor, enabling access to current row of data returned by query

  7. Example from the Java Dungeon • this.connection= DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:"+dbname); • statement.executeUpdate("create table character (" +"name varchar(20) primary key," + "description text," + "kind varchar(20)," + "location varchar(20) references location(name));");

  8. Processing the result set • ResultSet things = whats_at(my_location);if ( { System.out.println ("\nYou consider taking:"); do {System.out.println(things.getString("name") ); } while (;}

  9. Java Persistence • With a CLI, there is a clear and explicit translation between database tables and programming language constructs • The database and the application program are designed separately and made to work together. • The Java Persistence API allows us to design with objects, and have the library functions deal with the translation to and from tables.

  10. From CS12220 – • • A simple example, but wouldn’t it be good to have contacts persist in a database

  11. Java Persistence API – main elements • Entity – like Contact; instances are represented as rows in a table • And an EntityManager – to interact with the database • And a Persistence Unit – to group related entities together

  12. Files, Directories and Jars • – a class definition with some extra annotations • – includes an EntityManager that allows me to place contacts in the database • META-INF – a directory containing MANIFEST.MF and persistence.xml • lib – a directory containing necessary jar files

  13. • Original example by Lynda, with annotations: @blah • @Entity(name= "Contact")public class Contact { @Id // the primary key @Column (name = "name", nullable = false) private String name; //name of contact public String getName() { return; } @Column (name="phone") private String phone; //phone of contact… etc. • The annotations are defined in javax.persistence

  14. • EntityManagerFactory – creates an entity manager factory for the persistence unit – must match the persistence unit named in META-INF/persistence.xml • EntityManager – interacts with the database • A loop that reads in names and numbers and stores them in the database • Notice how transactions are defined and used

  15. META-INF/persistence.xml • Names the persistence unit • And the persistence provider • And the class to be persisted • And various properties like those we saw in connection strings previously

  16. META-INF/MANIFEST.MF • The class path • The main class

  17. Compiling, Packaging and Running the Application • java <source files> -cp <classpath to javax.persistence> <destination for classes> • jar cvmf META-INF/MANIFEST.MF <jar to be created> <classes to be packaged> META-INF • java –jar <the jar that was created> • NB: you can run the jar anywhere, but do make sure the library jars are where MANIFEST/META-INF says they will be!

  18. Changing to another database • The java sources stay the same • The Class Path entry in META-INF/MANIFEST.MF changes to reflect the new database connection jar • Some properties in META-INF/persistence.xml are changed to reflect the new database

  19. Using an IDE • Normally, you would use an IDE like Netbeans or Eclipse to build your JPA application • Netbeans will create a directory called dist containing your executable jar and a lib directory • You can zip the jar and the lib into a single file that can be run anywhere

  20. Annotating relationships • @OneToOne • @OneToMany • @ManyToOne • @ManyToMany • None of these is bidirectional

  21. Bidirectional Relationships • Every relationship has an owning side • and an inverse side that maps to the owning side • Annotate both sides to form a bidirectional relationship • Design options like those for object-oriented database systems

  22. A more complete example with relationships • Neil Taylor • Department-Employee • Run as a Netbeans project • Or zip the distribution to run standalone

  23. Online tutorials • • •

  24. In Summary • There are many ways to construct database applications • The Java Persistence API allows us to focus on object oriented design • Modern IDE’s automate much of the process of creating database applications