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DSRC/Wireless Applications and Testbeds California 1997-2008

For the “M5” WG16 workshop, Sept 2-4, 2008, Chicago. DSRC/Wireless Applications and Testbeds California 1997-2008. Susan Dickey, Ph. D Software Functional Manager California PATH/UC Berkeley dickey@path.berkeley.edu. Presentation topics.

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DSRC/Wireless Applications and Testbeds California 1997-2008

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  1. For the “M5” WG16 workshop, Sept 2-4, 2008, Chicago DSRC/Wireless Applications and TestbedsCalifornia 1997-2008 Susan Dickey, Ph. D Software Functional Manager California PATH/UC Berkeley dickey@path.berkeley.edu

  2. Presentation topics • Describes the research into wireless DSRC applications for mobility and safety that have motivated California PATH’s participation in WAVE/DSRC standards development and testbeds • Concentrates on current VII (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration) California testbed and GEMS (Group-enabled Mobility and Safety) application development activities but begins with motivation and historical survey

  3. California Demographics Population: 37 Million people About one out of every eight Americans lives in California 22 Million licensed drivers 24 Million registered vehicles Fifth - Eighth largest economy in the world Trend-setters; early adopters of new technologies Caltrans Improves Mobility Across California

  4. Safety Challenges in California 1 Million vehicle crashes each year 210,000 are injury-crashes 4,000 Fatalities 300,000 Injuries About 25% of fatalities occur at intersections Another 25% are lane/roadway departures Total Cost: more than $25 Billion per year

  5. Mobility Demands in California 280 Billion Vehicle-Miles-Traveled (VMT) each year, and growing State Highway System: 52,000 lane-miles 10% of the roadways in California Carries more than 60% of the VMT It is the Lifeline of our economy 560,000 hours of delay on average each day 30% of this delay is caused by incidents Total Cost: more than $21 Billion per year

  6. Wireless Communications:a tool to meet these challenges • Research at California PATH has been investigating wireless communications, vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside, for some time • Automated Highway Systems (1997-2003) • Active Safety Systems (2002-present) • Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems/Smart Intersections • Situational Awareness • VII California Testbed (2004-present) • Connected Traveler (2008-present) • Highlights are shown in the following slides

  7. Active Safety with Roadside Vehicle Communications (2003) • Demonstrated roadside warning based on infrastructure sensors and communication of vehicle GPS to RSE • Used desktop 802.11a access point to communicate with mini-PCI card in vehicles • Cooling was a challenge! • Smart intersection was then built at California PATH’s Richmond Field Station site Federal Highway Authority (FHWA) Turner Fairbank Research Center Smart Intersection with Left Turn Advisory Sign

  8. Situational AwarenessProof of Concept 2004 • Used large GPS and WiFi antennas (applications had to stay in range) • Demonstrated forward collision warning, blind spot/lane assist, and intersection assistant applications • Showed neighboring vehicle map real-time in display for engineering debugging

  9. California PATH Smart Intersection (2004-present) • Initially WiFi was used to deliver in-vehicle warnings and enable SV/POV/RSE communication for driver behavior research. • Recently Kapsch-Technocom IEEE 1609 capable MCNU has been installed (on pole at lower right of intersection)

  10. “State Map” of the IntersectionWe know the status of every communicating entity

  11. Expedited Vehicle Infrastructure Integration: Initial Applications Demonstrated 2004 CabinetswithDSRC • RSE uses Denso WAVE Radio module to broadcast exit info • Based on calculated distances and heading of car, audio within car annunciates “Exit ahead” • Countdown display in car every 50 meters until exit is passed • RSE requests vehicle speed and location data • Vehicle broadcasts speed and location data while within range which is logged by RSU

  12. The VII California Test Bed (2005-present) Purpose: • Assess real-world implementations of Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII), and evaluate architecture and operations • Provide information to support future decisions for California and Bay Area investments for system management programs • Inform the 2008 Viability Assessment for the National VII Program

  13. VII CaliforniaProgramPartners Public Agencies California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) City/County Association of Governments of San Mateo County Auto Industry Mercedes Research and Engineering Development, North America Volkswagen of America, Electronics Research Lab Toyota InfoTechnology Center, USA BMW of North America Nissan North America Technical Consultant California PATH

  14. VII California Test Bed Applications Traveler Information (using 511) Electronic Payment and Toll Collection Ramp Metering Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS) Curve Over-Speed Warning Auto Industry Applications, such as Customer Relations and Vehicle Diagnostics

  15. VII Calif. Test Bed Infrastructure • Access to 60 miles of Right-of-Way • Three, parallel, 20-mile long North/South routes: US 101; SR 82 (El Camino Real); and I-280 • 14 Road Side Equipment (RSE) sites are installed and operating, with approved FCC licenses • Mix of freeway / intersection locations • 26 more RSE sites have been selected and surveyed • Installation of RSEs will continue through 2008 • Backhaul: wired (T1 lines) and wireless (3G cellular; WiMAX, Municipal WiFi) • Communications technology choice is site dependent • Back End Data Servers • “Service Delivery Node” located at the 511 TIC in Oakland • IP-based; additional servers can be located anywhere

  16. VII California Test BedSouthern Peninsula,San FranciscoBay Area Following slides show a sample of current VII California testbed research

  17. VII California Transport Layer (1) • VII applications are two-way, e.g. • map update, navigation data request • advance parking space reservation • web page request (HTTP)‏ • software update • To be useful, response must arrive before vehicle leaves range of RSE. • Can DSRC support these apps?Vehicle <-> server connection is brief, due to: • high traffic speed • short radio range • RF interference • LOS occlusion, antenna placement • radio congestion • backhaul latency and bandwidth • In practice, we may have only 5-10 second

  18. VII California Transport Layer (2) • Protocol overhead consumes some of this scarce connection time. • Some protocols require set-up time before sending messages. • DHCP, TCP: several seconds • VII-CA testbed RSUDP and TMTCP protocols have no set-up time. • Performance tests show greatly increased probability of round-trip message completion. • For more information see • http://path.berkeley.edu/~vjoel/VII/TRC-S-08-00031.fdf .

  19. VII CA HA-NDGPS University of California-Riverside Objective: Create a HA-NDGPS correction equivalent base station and evaluate in comparison with alternative DGPS architectures L1/L2 CP-DGPS base station with conversion software to High Accuracy signal Broadcast high accuracy signal over DSRC architecture Evaluate CP-DGPS performance characteristics with alternative methods Tasks: Obtain Hardware/Software Trimble 5700, NTRIP, GRIM, HA2RCTM, rover receivers Set up initial test architectures at UC Riverside - POC Deploy HA-NDGPS and suitable architecture for VII - FOT Evaluate and compare HA-NDGPS and alternate positioning architectures Document DSRC DGPS implementation requirements

  20. VII-CA HA-NDGPS Base Station Implementation Installation Friday June 6, 2008 Test location: Mercedes-Benz R&D NA Roof mounted geodetic antenna Dedicated IP address Network and facility support DSRC radio is Denso WSU Trimble 5700 L1/L2 Receiver NTRIP Server Broadcast Code/Carrier corrections via NTRIP - RTCM 2.3/3.0 HA-NDGPS message sent via NTRIP

  21. VII-CA HA-NDGPS Integrated with RSE DSRC HA-NDGPS MB RDNA Palo Alto CE-CERT UC Riverside Future Site? FOT Sites FOT Participants

  22. VII-CA: Curve Speed Warning Concept of Operation OBU RSU Block Diagram Curve Speed Warning with EDMAP

  23. The “Connected Traveler” (2008) Will accelerate VII deployment using consumer mobile devices to deliver some VII services • Collect traffic data from/deliver traveler information to mobile consumer devices • Cell Phones, PDAs, PNDs • Become independent of communication link • Cellular Network (3G), Wi-Fi, DSRC, mobile WiMax? • Become independent of vehicle mode (cars, buses, or trucks) • Deliver at least “soft” safety, and perhaps more • “Stopped Traffic Ahead” alert • “Bike/Ped Nearby” alert

  24. Two Projects (California PATH and California Center for Innovative Transportation -CCIT) • “Mobile Millennium” (CCIT) • Builds upon the success of the “Mobile Century” Experiment • Very much a “Private Sector” business model • Public Sector becomes just another consumer of the traffic data • “Group-Enabled Mobility and Safety” (GEMS) (PATH) • A “Gateway” connects the consumer mobile device in the vehicle to roadside infrastructure • The Gateway enables new transit services too • Several transit agencies are very interested in these services • The Public Sector seeks to be the catalyst in triggering Private Sector development

  25. Connected Traveler: Partners • Public Partners • USDOT • Caltrans • Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) • Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) • San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans) • Academic Partners • California Center for Innovative Transportation (CCIT) • Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) • Private Partners • Nokia • NAVTEQ • Nissan

  26. Connected Traveler: Budget Total Project Budget: $12.4 million • Federal Share: $2.9 million • Caltrans Share: $4.2 million • Nokia Share: $2.5 million • NAVTEQ Share: $2.0 million • UC Berkeley Share: $700 thousand • Nissan Share: $30 thousand

  27. Provide real-time traveler information for safety, multi-modal mobility, parking, etc. Services can be easily downloaded from a web site into several types of mobile devices Gateway uses multiple communications modes, such as cell phone network, Wi-Fi, and DSRC, to connect the driver to the information Independent of vehicle type Uses the existing VII California Test Bed Group Enabled Mobility and Safety (GEMS)

  28. Tell me about my trip Helps you plan the best mode of travel, and the best road to take if you are driving Tell me about my road Alerts you if you enter a roadway segment that has stopped traffic, stopped traffic around a curve, ongoing incident, approaching stop sign, etc. Some sample messages: Caution: stopped traffic ahead Caution: ongoing incident ahead Speed assist The phone will alert you when you drive more than 5 mph above the posted speed limit for the road, or above the advised speed for a curve, or above the posted speed for a work zone. Watch out for me transmitter The cell phone can transmit the “Basic Safety Message” over Wi-Fi, when you are walking across the street, or riding a bike Alternatively, the cell phone can be used as a virtual “pedestrian call button” with a Wi-Fi equipped intersection to create an alert GEMS Services - Description

  29. GEMS Services – Personalized Interface

  30. Tell me about my trip (driving)

  31. Tell me about my road 32

  32. Backhaul Bluetooth Wi-Fi DSRC Multi-Network DSRC RSE GPS Internet Server Handset Gateway Wi-Fi RSE Ad-hoc Ad-hoc Gateway in other car

  33. Multi-Device http://www.connected-traveler.org/ speed_assist… Browser based • www.connected-traveler.org/tellmeaboutmyroad • www.connected-traveler.org/bestroute • www.connected-traveler.org/sendprobedata

  34. Gateway has Wi-Fi and DSRC radio interfaces Also has Bluetooth interface to cell phones Multi-Network Gateway Gateway Bluetooth Cell Phone

  35. GEMS Transit Services • Partners: • Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) • San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans) • Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) • Services: • Dynamic Passenger Information at Stations • Dynamic On-Board Transit Connection Information • Dynamic Parking Management and Information System • Adaptive Transit Signal Priority • Transit Buses as Traffic Data Probe Vehicles

  36. The 3 “D”s: Transit/Modal Integration Elements • Dynamic Traveler Information • interactive information through web, mobile device, bus station interface • Parking availability for drivers • Arrival and connection information to transit riders • Dynamic Transit Operations (based on Origin-Destination data) • With destination data provided through mobile device and bus station interface, dynamically manage bus transit schedule for more efficient operation • Adaptive Transit Signal Priority • Buses as probe vehicles • Dynamic Parking Management • Manage surplus parking • Provide parking information Next bus 2 min Next station in 2 min

  37. Supporting Dynamic Parking Management and Information Highway is congested during peak periods Drivers tend to think parking lots are full, even when stations still have parking available Dynamic information on parking availability makes transit use more convenient

  38. Buses are frequently operated on urban corridors Rapid Buses flow with traffic most of the time By removing bus station characteristics, they can be used as effective traffic probes Buses as Traffic Data Probes

  39. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes in Santa Clara County: VTA, with Caltrans Future connected network Preliminary engineering work to develop HOT lanes on US 101 and SR 85 Study of express bus/BRT overlay MTC leading regional San Francisco Bay Area HOT lane effort Pricing with transit improvements, to encourage mode shift and reduce congestion HOT Lane Pricing Management

  40. GEMS Plans for the Next Year GEMS Services will be demonstrated at ITSA World Congress, November 16-20, 2008, New York City Field Evaluation Plans Underway • Safety: • Safety Advisories • Pedestrian Watch Out for Me • Mobility and ePayment • Integrated Plan: Transit Diversion  Smart Parking  BART NFC Payment • South Bay • Valley Transportation Authority (CMA with HOT Lane Plans) • Stanford Area • Stanford Margeurite Shuttle • Surrounding Trip Generation Points • Bridge Tolling

  41. Concept of Advisory Services Mapping to Classic Driving Model Taxonomy • Strategic • Safety Route Advisory • Tactical (Primary Focus) • Situational Awareness Advisory • Control • “Watch out for me!” Active Safety

  42. Safety Advisory Data Sources • Collisions • California Traffic Accident Surveillance and Analysis System (TASAS), 1994–2006 collisions on traveling lanes • Traffic Data • Real-Time Traffic Data from NAVTEQ Traffic • Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS), (https://pems.eecs.berkeley.edu/) • Geometric Features • Map24 from NAVTEQ • Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) • A Federally mandated inventory system and planning tool • Caltrans intranet Document Retrieval System (DRS) • Caltrans Photolog (http://video.dot.ca.gov/photolog/) • Photos by post mile along the California state freeway system.

  43. Exemplar Safety Advisory Evaluation Factors

  44. In Conclusion • Researchers are using the VII California testbed for a wide variety of communications-enabled applications research • Interoperability is a key concern, since we use communications equipment from multiple manufacturers, and work with many different automobile OEMs. The rapid completion of standards for interoperabilty is of crucial importance for deployment. • For hard safety applications, DSRC performance is required. But we are interested in using all types of communication to improve safety and mobility for travelers, and in developing ways for these to work together. • As a deployment model, we hope to piggyback on the increasing capability of personal communications devices available to the connected traveler. Use of existing IP-based communication models will remain important.

  45. Thank you! For more information, please refer to:viicalifornia.org

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