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For the “M5” WG16 workshop, Sept 2-4, 2008, Chicago. DSRC/Wireless Applications and Testbeds California 1997-2008. Susan Dickey, Ph. D Software Functional Manager California PATH/UC Berkeley dickey@path.berkeley.edu. Presentation topics.

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DSRC/Wireless Applications and Testbeds California 1997-2008

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dsrc wireless applications and testbeds california 1997 2008

For the “M5” WG16 workshop,

Sept 2-4, 2008, Chicago

DSRC/Wireless Applications and TestbedsCalifornia 1997-2008

Susan Dickey, Ph. D

Software Functional Manager

California PATH/UC Berkeley


presentation topics
Presentation topics
  • Describes the research into wireless DSRC applications for mobility and safety that have motivated California PATH’s participation in WAVE/DSRC standards development and testbeds
  • Concentrates on current VII (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration) California testbed and GEMS (Group-enabled Mobility and Safety) application development activities but begins with motivation and historical survey
california demographics
California Demographics

Population: 37 Million people

About one out of every eight Americans lives in California

22 Million licensed drivers

24 Million registered vehicles

Fifth - Eighth largest economy in the world

Trend-setters; early adopters of new technologies

Caltrans Improves Mobility Across California

safety challenges in california
Safety Challenges in California

1 Million vehicle crashes each year

210,000 are injury-crashes

4,000 Fatalities

300,000 Injuries

About 25% of fatalities occur at intersections

Another 25% are lane/roadway departures

Total Cost: more than $25 Billion per year

mobility demands in california
Mobility Demands in California

280 Billion Vehicle-Miles-Traveled (VMT) each year, and growing

State Highway System: 52,000 lane-miles

10% of the roadways in California

Carries more than 60% of the VMT

It is the Lifeline of our economy

560,000 hours of delay on average each day

30% of this delay is caused by incidents

Total Cost: more than $21 Billion per year

wireless communications a tool to meet these challenges
Wireless Communications:a tool to meet these challenges
  • Research at California PATH has been investigating wireless communications, vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside, for some time
    • Automated Highway Systems (1997-2003)
    • Active Safety Systems (2002-present)
      • Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems/Smart Intersections
      • Situational Awareness
    • VII California Testbed (2004-present)
    • Connected Traveler (2008-present)
  • Highlights are shown in the following slides
active safety with roadside vehicle communications 2003
Active Safety with Roadside Vehicle Communications (2003)
  • Demonstrated roadside warning based on infrastructure sensors and communication of vehicle GPS to RSE
  • Used desktop 802.11a access point to communicate with mini-PCI card in vehicles
  • Cooling was a challenge!
  • Smart intersection was then built at California PATH’s Richmond Field Station site

Federal Highway Authority (FHWA) Turner Fairbank Research Center Smart Intersection with Left Turn Advisory Sign

situational awareness proof of concept 2004
Situational AwarenessProof of Concept 2004
  • Used large GPS and WiFi antennas (applications had to stay in range)
  • Demonstrated forward collision warning, blind spot/lane assist, and intersection assistant applications
  • Showed neighboring vehicle map real-time in display for engineering debugging
california path smart intersection 2004 present
California PATH Smart Intersection (2004-present)
  • Initially WiFi was used to deliver in-vehicle warnings and enable SV/POV/RSE communication for driver behavior research.
  • Recently Kapsch-Technocom IEEE 1609 capable MCNU has been installed (on pole at lower right of intersection)
expedited vehicle infrastructure integration initial applications demonstrated 2004
Expedited Vehicle Infrastructure Integration: Initial Applications Demonstrated 2004


  • RSE uses Denso WAVE Radio module to broadcast exit info
    • Based on calculated distances and heading of car, audio within car annunciates “Exit ahead”
    • Countdown display in car every 50 meters until exit is passed
  • RSE requests vehicle speed and location data
    • Vehicle broadcasts speed and location data while within range which is logged by RSU
the vii california test bed 2005 present
The VII California Test Bed (2005-present)


  • Assess real-world implementations of Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII), and evaluate architecture and operations
  • Provide information to support future decisions for California and Bay Area investments for system management programs
  • Inform the 2008 Viability Assessment for the National VII Program
vii california program partners
VII CaliforniaProgramPartners

Public Agencies

California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)

Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC)

City/County Association of Governments of San Mateo County

Auto Industry

Mercedes Research and Engineering Development, North America

Volkswagen of America, Electronics Research Lab

Toyota InfoTechnology Center, USA

BMW of North America

Nissan North America

Technical Consultant

California PATH

vii california test bed applications
VII California Test Bed Applications

Traveler Information (using 511)

Electronic Payment and Toll Collection

Ramp Metering

Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS)

Curve Over-Speed Warning

Auto Industry Applications, such as Customer Relations and Vehicle Diagnostics

vii calif test bed infrastructure
VII Calif. Test Bed Infrastructure
  • Access to 60 miles of Right-of-Way
    • Three, parallel, 20-mile long North/South routes: US 101; SR 82 (El Camino Real); and I-280
  • 14 Road Side Equipment (RSE) sites are installed and operating, with approved FCC licenses
    • Mix of freeway / intersection locations
  • 26 more RSE sites have been selected and surveyed
    • Installation of RSEs will continue through 2008
  • Backhaul: wired (T1 lines) and wireless (3G cellular; WiMAX, Municipal WiFi)
    • Communications technology choice is site dependent
  • Back End Data Servers
    • “Service Delivery Node” located at the 511 TIC in Oakland
    • IP-based; additional servers can be located anywhere
vii california test bed southern peninsula san francisco bay area
VII California Test BedSouthern Peninsula,San FranciscoBay Area

Following slides show a sample of current VII California testbed research

vii california transport layer 1
VII California Transport Layer (1)
  • VII applications are two-way, e.g.
    • map update, navigation data request
    • advance parking space reservation
    • web page request (HTTP)‏
    • software update
  • To be useful, response must arrive before vehicle leaves range of RSE.
  • Can DSRC support these apps?Vehicle <-> server connection is brief, due to:
    • high traffic speed
    • short radio range
    • RF interference
    • LOS occlusion, antenna placement
    • radio congestion
    • backhaul latency and bandwidth
  • In practice, we may have only 5-10 second
vii california transport layer 2
VII California Transport Layer (2)
  • Protocol overhead consumes some of this scarce connection time.
  • Some protocols require set-up time before sending messages.
    • DHCP, TCP: several seconds
  • VII-CA testbed RSUDP and TMTCP protocols have no set-up time.
    • Performance tests show greatly increased probability of round-trip message completion.
  • For more information see
    • http://path.berkeley.edu/~vjoel/VII/TRC-S-08-00031.fdf


vii ca ha ndgps university of california riverside
VII CA HA-NDGPS University of California-Riverside

Objective: Create a HA-NDGPS correction equivalent base station and evaluate in comparison with alternative DGPS architectures

L1/L2 CP-DGPS base station with conversion software to High Accuracy signal

Broadcast high accuracy signal over DSRC architecture

Evaluate CP-DGPS performance characteristics with alternative methods


Obtain Hardware/Software

Trimble 5700, NTRIP, GRIM, HA2RCTM, rover receivers

Set up initial test architectures at UC Riverside - POC

Deploy HA-NDGPS and suitable architecture for VII - FOT

Evaluate and compare HA-NDGPS and alternate positioning architectures

Document DSRC DGPS implementation requirements

vii ca ha ndgps base station implementation
VII-CA HA-NDGPS Base Station Implementation

Installation Friday June 6, 2008

Test location: Mercedes-Benz R&D NA

Roof mounted geodetic antenna

Dedicated IP address

Network and facility support

DSRC radio is Denso WSU

Trimble 5700 L1/L2 Receiver

NTRIP Server

Broadcast Code/Carrier corrections via NTRIP - RTCM 2.3/3.0

HA-NDGPS message sent via NTRIP

vii ca ha ndgps integrated with rse dsrc
VII-CA HA-NDGPS Integrated with RSE DSRC



Palo Alto


UC Riverside

Future Site?

FOT Sites

FOT Participants

vii ca curve speed warning concept of operation
VII-CA: Curve Speed Warning Concept of Operation



Block Diagram

Curve Speed Warning with EDMAP

the connected traveler 2008
The “Connected Traveler” (2008)

Will accelerate VII deployment using consumer mobile devices to deliver some VII services

  • Collect traffic data from/deliver traveler information to mobile consumer devices
    • Cell Phones, PDAs, PNDs
  • Become independent of communication link
    • Cellular Network (3G), Wi-Fi, DSRC, mobile WiMax?
  • Become independent of vehicle mode (cars, buses, or trucks)
  • Deliver at least “soft” safety, and perhaps more
    • “Stopped Traffic Ahead” alert
    • “Bike/Ped Nearby” alert
two projects california path and california center for innovative transportation ccit
Two Projects (California PATH and California Center for Innovative Transportation -CCIT)
  • “Mobile Millennium” (CCIT)
    • Builds upon the success of the “Mobile Century” Experiment
    • Very much a “Private Sector” business model
    • Public Sector becomes just another consumer of the traffic data
  • “Group-Enabled Mobility and Safety” (GEMS) (PATH)
    • A “Gateway” connects the consumer mobile device in the vehicle to roadside infrastructure
    • The Gateway enables new transit services too
      • Several transit agencies are very interested in these services
    • The Public Sector seeks to be the catalyst in triggering Private Sector development
connected traveler partners
Connected Traveler: Partners
  • Public Partners
    • USDOT
    • Caltrans
    • Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC)
    • Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA)
    • San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans)
  • Academic Partners
    • California Center for Innovative Transportation (CCIT)
    • Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH)
  • Private Partners
    • Nokia
    • NAVTEQ
    • Nissan
connected traveler budget
Connected Traveler: Budget

Total Project Budget: $12.4 million

  • Federal Share: $2.9 million
  • Caltrans Share: $4.2 million
  • Nokia Share: $2.5 million
  • NAVTEQ Share: $2.0 million
  • UC Berkeley Share: $700 thousand
  • Nissan Share: $30 thousand
Provide real-time traveler information for safety, multi-modal mobility, parking, etc.

Services can be easily downloaded from a web site into several types of mobile devices

Gateway uses multiple communications modes, such as cell phone network, Wi-Fi, and DSRC, to connect the driver to the information

Independent of vehicle type

Uses the existing VII California Test Bed

Group Enabled Mobility and Safety (GEMS)

Tell me about my trip

Helps you plan the best mode of travel, and the best road to take if you are driving

Tell me about my road

Alerts you if you enter a roadway segment that has stopped traffic, stopped traffic around a curve, ongoing incident, approaching stop sign, etc.

Some sample messages:

Caution: stopped traffic ahead

Caution: ongoing incident ahead

Speed assist

The phone will alert you when you drive more than 5 mph above the posted speed limit for the road, or above the advised speed for a curve, or above the posted speed for a work zone.

Watch out for me transmitter

The cell phone can transmit the “Basic Safety Message” over Wi-Fi, when you are walking across the street, or riding a bike

Alternatively, the cell phone can be used as a virtual “pedestrian call button” with a Wi-Fi equipped intersection to create an alert

GEMS Services - Description

multi network


















in other car

multi device



Browser based

  • www.connected-traveler.org/tellmeaboutmyroad
  • www.connected-traveler.org/bestroute
  • www.connected-traveler.org/sendprobedata
Gateway has Wi-Fi and DSRC radio interfaces

Also has Bluetooth interface to cell phones

Multi-Network Gateway



Cell Phone

gems transit services
GEMS Transit Services
  • Partners:
    • Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA)
    • San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans)
    • Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)
  • Services:
    • Dynamic Passenger Information at Stations
    • Dynamic On-Board Transit Connection Information
    • Dynamic Parking Management and Information System
    • Adaptive Transit Signal Priority
    • Transit Buses as Traffic Data Probe Vehicles
the 3 d s transit modal integration elements
The 3 “D”s: Transit/Modal Integration Elements
  • Dynamic Traveler Information
    • interactive information through web, mobile device, bus station interface
    • Parking availability for drivers
    • Arrival and connection information to transit riders
  • Dynamic Transit Operations (based on Origin-Destination data)
    • With destination data provided through mobile device and bus station interface, dynamically manage bus transit schedule for more efficient operation
    • Adaptive Transit Signal Priority
    • Buses as probe vehicles
  • Dynamic Parking Management
    • Manage surplus parking
    • Provide parking information

Next bus 2 min

Next station in 2 min

supporting dynamic parking management and information
Supporting Dynamic Parking Management and Information

Highway is congested during peak periods

Drivers tend to think parking lots are full, even when stations still have parking available

Dynamic information on parking availability makes transit use more convenient

buses as traffic data probes
Buses are frequently operated on urban corridors

Rapid Buses flow with traffic most of the time

By removing bus station characteristics, they can be used as effective traffic probes

Buses as Traffic Data Probes
hot lane pricing management
High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes in Santa Clara County:

VTA, with Caltrans

Future connected network

Preliminary engineering work to develop HOT lanes on US 101 and SR 85

Study of express bus/BRT overlay

MTC leading regional San Francisco Bay Area HOT lane effort

Pricing with transit improvements, to encourage mode shift and reduce congestion

HOT Lane Pricing Management
gems plans for the next year
GEMS Plans for the Next Year

GEMS Services will be demonstrated at ITSA World Congress, November 16-20, 2008, New York City

Field Evaluation Plans Underway

  • Safety:
    • Safety Advisories
    • Pedestrian Watch Out for Me
  • Mobility and ePayment
    • Integrated Plan: Transit Diversion  Smart Parking  BART NFC Payment
    • South Bay
      • Valley Transportation Authority (CMA with HOT Lane Plans)
      • Stanford Area
        • Stanford Margeurite Shuttle
        • Surrounding Trip Generation Points
    • Bridge Tolling
concept of advisory services
Concept of Advisory Services

Mapping to Classic Driving Model Taxonomy

  • Strategic
    • Safety Route Advisory
  • Tactical (Primary Focus)
    • Situational Awareness Advisory
  • Control
    • “Watch out for me!” Active Safety
safety advisory data sources
Safety Advisory Data Sources
  • Collisions
    • California Traffic Accident Surveillance and Analysis System (TASAS), 1994–2006 collisions on traveling lanes
  • Traffic Data
    • Real-Time Traffic Data from NAVTEQ Traffic
    • Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS), (https://pems.eecs.berkeley.edu/)
  • Geometric Features
    • Map24 from NAVTEQ
    • Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS)
      • A Federally mandated inventory system and planning tool
    • Caltrans intranet Document Retrieval System (DRS)
    • Caltrans Photolog (http://video.dot.ca.gov/photolog/)
      • Photos by post mile along the California state freeway system.
in conclusion
In Conclusion
  • Researchers are using the VII California testbed for a wide variety of communications-enabled applications research
  • Interoperability is a key concern, since we use communications equipment from multiple manufacturers, and work with many different automobile OEMs. The rapid completion of standards for interoperabilty is of crucial importance for deployment.
  • For hard safety applications, DSRC performance is required. But we are interested in using all types of communication to improve safety and mobility for travelers, and in developing ways for these to work together.
  • As a deployment model, we hope to piggyback on the increasing capability of personal communications devices available to the connected traveler. Use of existing IP-based communication models will remain important.

Thank you!

For more information, please refer to:viicalifornia.org