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Distance & Magnitude Effects In Rhesus Macaques & College Students. In collaboration with: Elizabeth Brannon (Duke University) Lisa Son (Barnard College). Which is bigger? a fly or an elephant?. a jaguar or a cheetah?. Which city is further from San Francisco? Sacramento or Dallas?.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Distance & Magnitude Effects

In

Rhesus Macaques & College Students

  • In collaboration with:
      • Elizabeth Brannon (Duke University)
      • Lisa Son (Barnard College)
slide2

Which is bigger?

    • a fly or an elephant?
  • a jaguar or a cheetah?
  • Which city is further from San Francisco?
    • Sacramento or Dallas?
  • Sacramento or Santa Cruz?

How do we represent such comparisons?

  • Propositionally?
  • requires language
  • Imagistically?
      • requires pictorial and/or spatial thinking
distance effect

Distance Effect

Accuracy  f(distance)

AccuracyCL>AccuracySU

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Reaction Time  f(distance)

RTC< RTS

magnitude effect

Magnitude Effect

Accuracy  f(magnitude)

Reaction Time  f(magnitude)

A B CD E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

AccuracyCF >AccuracyKN > AccuracySV

RTC < RTK < RTS

slide11

Distance & Magnitude Effects

  • Distance and magnitude effects are psychological and not psychophysical processes.
  • Differences in RTs cannot be explained by any physical parameter of stimuli.
  • They cannot be explained by associative processes which, indeed, predict the opposite of the observed effects.
  • They cannot be explained by iterative processes, which predict the opposite of observed effects.
slide12

How do we make relative judgments of size, distance, weight etc?

  • Prothetic continua
    • intensitive differences (loudness, brightness, etc.)
    • Weber’s law applies
    • Logarithmic (Fechner) or power (Stevens) functions
  • Metathetic continua
    • qualitative differences (hue, pitch, etc.)
    • Weber’s law does not apply
slide13

Seven-Item Lists

List One

List Two

List Three

List Four

slide15

SUBSET TEST: WITHIN LISTS

A  B  C  D  E  F  G

SAMPLE

SUBSET:

(Required order):

B  E

E B

ALL SUBSETS:

AB AC AD AE AF AG

BC BD BE BF BG

CD CE CF CG

DE DF DG

EF EG

FG

slide16

SUBSET TEST

B3D3

B3 D3

[WITHIN LIST]

A1  B1  C1  D1  E1  G1  F1

A2  B2  C2  D2  E2  G2  F2

A3  B3  C3  D3  E3  G3  F3

A4  B4  C4  D4  E4  G4  F4

SAMPLE SUBSETS (Required order):

B1F4

E3G1

E3 G1

B1 F4

D4G3

G3 D4

slide17

S

9

R

J

7

L

E

slide24

REQUIRED SEQUENCE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

SAMPLE CONFIGURATION

SAMPLE CONFIGURATION

5

4

8

1

2

8

6

3

5

7

4

1

7

2

3

6

slide33

“…the number faculty largely emerges through the interaction of central features of the language faculty with other cognitive capacities relating to the recognition and manipulation of concrete objects and collections.” (Hurford, 1987)

slide34

Arbitrary sequence

B

C

D

A

Numerical sequence

C

A

D

B

slide35

Arbitrary sequence

B

C

D

A

Numerical sequence

B

A

C

D

slide38

Brannon & Terrace, (unplublished)

LATENCY

ACCURACY

Milliseconds

Percent Correct

Numerical Distance

slide44

Arbitrary

Numerical

slide46

DISTANCE EFFECTS: HUMAN AND MONKEY

3000

Arbitrary 6-item (Monkey)

(Terrace, et al., 1966)

Arbitrary

2500

Arbitrary 7-item (Monkey;

Terrace, Son & Brannon,

2003)

Arbitrary 8-item (Human)

(Terrace & Jaswall, 1998)

2000

Letters (Human)(Hamilton &

Sanford,1978)

1500

REACTION TIME (msec)

Geometric Patterns (Human)

(Brannon & Terrace, 2001)

Numerical

1000

500

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

DISTANCE

Random Dots (Human)

(Buckley & Gillman,1974)

Arabic Numerals (Human)

(Buckley & Gillman, 1974)

Arabic Numerals (Human)

(Moyer & Landauer, 1976)

slide47

Two-item subset test

A1  B1  C1  D1  E1  G1  F1

A3  B3  C3  D3  E3  G3  F3

G3 

E1

C4

F2 

A2 B2  C2  D2  E2  G2  F2

A4  B4  C4  D4  E4  G4  F4