Tomorrow – Report directly to the auditorium We have been assigned to sit in the front left section Tardy slips will be issued – be on time Purpose of Assembly: Graduation Project
Basic Plot: • 23 very different individuals meet to take a pilgrimage (religious journey) • Characters all archetypes (con-artist, adulterer, serial-killer, loan shark, pirate, an infected!) • Tell stories along the way – to pass the time (best story wins a free dinner!) • Story filled with jokes, exaggerations and irony to make a political point!
Who is Geoffrey Chaucer? Father of English poetry (political activist) Why did Geoffrey Chaucer write the Canterbury Tales? Motivate the middle and lower class to demand better treatment and become aware of corruption Why is the text considered important? Middle English – Chaucer was the first to write for the Middle Class (power of the written word)
Frame narrative–tale within a tale (pilgrimage, as well as, contest stories) • Satire –prose or verse that uses wit, irony, innuendo, or outright derision to expose human evil, silliness and/or corruption. • Pilgrimage –visits some holy place with religious intent: ‘give thanks, ask forgiveness, seek healing’
Spring – symbolizes hope and rebirth (symbolic – rebirth of England; Middle Class) • Pilgrims begin their journey at the Tabard Inn • Tabard is an official garment of a herald (symbolic – inform)
St. Thomas Becket – pilgrims will visit his shrine • Most famous Medieval martyr – refused King a divorce • Murder by the king’s knights = his death is symbolic of the corruption of power
Ambiguity – unclear or deceptive • Main Theme: appearances can be deceiving • Bourgeoisie – Middle Class (Chaucer’s audience) • Relic – religious token (believed to have powers) • Guild – like a union; formed in cities to maintain prices and standards (each trade had their own guild)
Epicureanism – philosophy that one should indulge in the very best life has to offer (live in luxury) • The bodily humors – medical belief : amount of given fluid within the body control personality • Summoner – responsible for bringing individuals to trial • Pardoner; pardon (or indulgence) – ‘sells’ forgiveness • Reeve – officer of the royal court (administrator)
Gap-teethed – romantically skilled • Medieval attitude towards widows / remarriage – outcastes; disgraced • During the Middle Ages women had the legal status of children (considered property or dependants!)
Why might we consider The Canterbury Tales as a microcosm of the medieval world? • Travel was only time various social class would come in contact. (Chaucer shows similarities) 3 Main Social Groups • Feudal = royalty; agriculture • Ecclesiastical = religious positions • Urban = city dwellers; guilds • Feudal – old way of life; challenged by Urban
Prologue Setting and Context Questions: 1. What season is described in the opening passage of The CanterburyTales? April (symbolic of change; hope; new birth) 2. What do people especially want to do when this season comes, according to the narrator? long to go on pilgrimages in the spring (winter is over; time for renewal)
Prologue Setting and Context Questions: 3. Where especially do English people want to go? Why do they want to go there? ‘seek their martyr’ - allusion to St. Thomas Becket 4. How many pilgrims does the narrator claim he meets at the Tabard inn? “9 and 20 in company” = 29 pilgrims
Why does Chaucer use ‘generic’ names for most of his characters? • Creates archetype • Readers (subconsciously) will bring a set of expectations to compare and contrast to his characterization • Makes the reader connect!
Archetype: An original pattern or model from which all other things of the same kind are made. • Psychology of Carl Jung. • Theory that behind every person's "unconscious," or repressed memories of the past, exists the "collective unconscious" of the human race: memories of the countless typical experiences of our ancestors.
Archetypes are the literary images that grow out of the "collective unconscious." • They appear in literature as characters, events and plot lines that repeat basic patterns of life. • They may also appear as stereotyped characters.
If you had a character that fit the archetype of the initiate (aka rookie, ‘new guy’) what would you expect them to act like, do and experience within the coarse of a given story? What power does this awareness give the reader?
Why use archetypes? • Help reader connect with the text. • Make associations with their own experiences and life • Predict events and analyze outcomes Archetype =
For example, if the pilgrims were named: The Coach, The Teacher, The Nerd, The Cheerleader, The Musician, etc… you would immediately think of people in your life that apply to those roles. • As a result, you will connect with the text and compare/contrast your prior knowledge with the events in the text’s plot.
What should we learn from the Canterbury Tales? • Characteristics of Medieval Life (history; culture; social issues) • Elements of Satire (irony, exaggeration) • Purpose of Archetypes • Content Details
We will go in order of your guided notes • Be certain to copy answers to all presented guided questions • You are responsible for all pilgrims • Once all presentations have been given, I will review and complete any missing pilgrims and/or notes • Prologue Quiz Friday
THE KNIGHT • “generous; chivalrous”; No man has ever • battled more • “always killed his man” – FLAW IN • CHIVALRY – NO MERCY • “never yet a boorish thing had said” • “a perfect gentle knight” • Just home from battle; there to give • thanks; shows humble and loyal or • IRONIC CHARACTER – SEEKS GLORY
THE SQUIRE • manicured appearance; impractical • mistakes of youth – only 20 • ‘lover not a fighter’ • archetype = initiate
THE YEOMAN • Knight’s servant • impractical clothing (expensive) • Situational Irony – servant in noble fabrics
THE PRIORESS (NUN) • Poor girl that ‘made it big’ • From humble beginnings • Situational Irony – red lipstick = prostitute
THE MONK • 3 Religious Vows = • poverty (poor); • chastity (single); • mercy (harm no animal) • Breaks ALL 3 • hunts; • expensive clothes / greyhounds; • gold lover’s knot (pin) All religious clergy must take!
THE FRIAR • “fixed-up many a marriage, giving each of his young • women what he could afford her.” • Good = helps them with marriage advice • Bad = sleeps with them and makes them more • promiscuous and/or sells her!
THE MERCHANT Claims his wealth is from loans, bargains, negotiations Theme – Appearances can be deceiving Actually broke(is he on the run from loan sharks; was he the one giving the loans or taking them and ripping people off?)
THE OXFORD CLERK (Cleric) Spends all his money on books Quiet; straight and to the point; lofty in theme; tone of moral virtue (snob; elitist) Learn and teach (wants to discuss knowledge; show it off; but not apply it to solve problems= Sloth Criticism of Medieval education (it was for social status not societal progress / improvement
THE LAWYER (Sergeant – at – law) • “knew every judgment and case • Wore a multi-colored coat and silk pinstripe belt • “no one as busy as he – he was less busy then he seemed to be.”
THE FRANKLIN • “ate a sop of cake in wine for breakfast” – decadent! • “sensual delight” likes to indulge; has the best; • Franklin = Gluttony
THE GUILDSMEN • silver (only have it to show off); Doesn’t make sense to flash valuables when medieval travel is extremely prone to hijackers and robbery (value impressing people over own safety) • Wives want to be called madam, feel husbands should be alderman (head of their guilds) = Pride
THE COOK • He is a drunk, has an ulcer on his knee • Bad (from alcoholism or Plague) • White food (making a thick creamy soup); • Yuk relates to his puss! • Convey’s theme: • appearances can be deceiving.
THE SAILOR (SKIPPER): • Pirate • Carries multiple daggers = troubled life; paranoid • “he sent his prisoner’s home, they walked the plank.” • Conveys: Fear and greed create violence
THE PHYSICIAN astronomy – uses stars, planets, horoscope to prescribe treatment Scam with apothecaries (made money from Plague) Bible (suggests he’s a sinner) Favorite item is gold = Greed Coveys: People will exploit pain; capitalize on tragedy
THE PARSON “holy minded man of good renown” poor but rich in holy thought "if gold rust, what shall poor iron do?" Metaphor: If gold a refined metal can rust than what hope does iron a coarse metal have for not rusting. Means: clergy must lead by example(cannot expect to have good people if their religious leaders are corrupt) Stayed at home and watched over his fold so that no wolf (corrupt clergy) shall harm the sheep (his followers)
THE PLOWMAN Brother of the Parson Thrash corn, dig, manure, make ditch, etc…. Humble; even though his work is hard and he does not make much money he gives to the Church
THE MILLER (ROBIN) “big in brawn and bone” ‘Party-trick’ = tears off doors or smashes them down by ramming his head into it = Wrath Red (sow or fox) – allusion to Wrath Filthy tavern stories (big mouth) Bagpipes front; “leads them out of town”
THE MANCIPLE Watched them (bosses) closely; feels he is smarter Learns by observation Street Smarts
THE REEVE (OSWALD) People fear him - knew their sins and secrets (blackmail!) Had treasure stored away (he loans to Lords) “Feared like the plague he was” Hindmost of our cavalcade ( in the back) – watches people; gets dirt on them
THE SUMMONER brought people to court; served papers Garlic, onions and leeks, strong red wine (smelly breath!) “…for a quart of wine allow a good lad to keep a concubine.” “in his purse the punishment should be” The Pardoner – narrator says they were “two birds of a feather”
THE PARDONER Hair = yellow as wax; Fell thinly like rat tails small voice of a goat "I think he [the Pardoner] was a gelding or a mare"? Is he male or female (gender issues) Entire bag of fake relics to sell Brags about it! = Pride Takes advantage of peoples faith; desperation (Worst in Chaucer’s opinion)
THE HOST (HARRY BAILEY) No many attribute he lacked Presents challenge (tell tales) Tell two stories on the outward trip and another two on the way home that are “from days of old.” Best told is the one that gives fullest “measure of good morality and general pleasure.” Winner gets a supper paid for by all
Chaucer’s Lessons: • Through the use of archetypes and satire, Chaucer ‘teaches; reveals’ the following: • Appearances can be deceiving • All social classes are the same (flawed); therefore discrimination and inequality are foolish • Power corrupts ( must be challenged; changed)
Pilgrim ArchetypeDirections: (1) Review the definition for each literary archetype (2) Correctly match each listed pilgrim with a provided literary archetype. (3) Provide a 1-2 sentence explanation that clearly defends your selection. (What characteristics are ascribed to the pilgrim that fit the archetype?)
The Warrior Hero (aka Hercules archetype) – skilled fighter, never defeated, vast travels and battles • The Mystic (Psychic; Magician) – possesses ancient knowledge (astrology); can heal
The Prophet (Sage) – vastly educated; speak truths; provide moral insight; typically does not act on wisdom • The Outlaw (aka Destroyer) -embodies repressed rage; loud/bold; physically aggressive and typically large
The Temptress - alluring, bewitching woman; dangerously seductive • The Unfaithful - Not adhering to promises, obligations, or allegiances; disloyal.
The Trickster - tries to manipulate the surroundings to ensure that he/she will win or benefit • The Herald - issues challenges and announces the coming of significant change.
The Initiate – ‘rookie’; learning a trade/task; naive; inexperienced • The Infected – carry a virus; typically a plague that creates conflict through dramatic irony
TODAY: (1) Complete Archetype Chart (2) Choose ONE extension activity Reader Response or Creative Response (3) Review Prologue Study Guide (Suggestion: Make notecards to help you study ) Tomorrow: Prologue Test (On all characters; notes)