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Organic Structures. Ways to write complex molecules. Some reminders…. Carbon compounds will form (almost always) four bonds They can several possible combinations with other atoms If all the bonds are single: (four sigma bonds) they have sp 3 hybidization , 109.5 o , tetrahedral

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organic structures

Organic Structures

Ways to write complex molecules

some reminders
Some reminders…

Carbon compounds will form (almost always) four bonds

They can several possible combinations with other atoms

If all the bonds are single: (four sigma bonds)

they have sp3hybidization, 109.5o, tetrahedral

If there are two singles and one double (three sigma’s and one pi):

they have sp2hridization, 120o, trigonal planar

If there are two doubles (two sigma and two pi bonds):

they have sphybrization, 180o, linear

O=C=O

H

C

H

H

H

O

C

H

H

carbon structures
Carbon Structures

Carbon can form long chains:

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

The chains can continue for

millions of carbon atoms

The bond angles are, in the simplest case, 109.5o

carbon structures1
Carbon Structures

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

In the simplest case…

Each carbon is surrounded by two hydrogens

The end carbons have an extra hydrogen

So the formula for the

simplest carbon compounds is

CnH2n+2

drawing carbon structures 1
Drawing Carbon Structures…1

Carbon structures can be written many ways…

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Often, the bonds will be written at right angles…

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Sometimes, the carbons

and hydrogens will be

written together…

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

Repeated carbons

and hydrogens can be

compressed even more…

CH3

CH3

(CH2)7

drawing carbon structures 2
Drawing Carbon Structures…2

Hydrogen may often be left out…

C

C

C

C

C

Either angular…

C

C

C

C

Or linear…

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

OH

H

C

C

C

NH2

H

Other important

elements, like oxygen or

nitrogen can be included…

C

C

C

OH

H

Notice that the hydrogen

bonded to the other

elements is included

NH2

H

drawing carbon structures 3
Drawing Carbon Structures…3

Carbon may be left out, showing only the carbon-

carbon bonds…

C9H20

Double or triple bonds

are straight-forward…

C9H18

OH

Non-carbon or hydrogen

groups may be added…

C6H20NH2OH

NH2