CHAPTER 4 FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE
WHAT IS CULTURE? • Describe, in as much detail as possible, a typical Friday (from the time you get out of bed until you go to bed)
CULTURE…. …The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions (uggghhh) • basically it is the way of life of a group of people (their collection of customs)
CULTURE COMBINES…. VALUES • MATERIAL*** • ARTIFACTS • visible objects a group possesses and leaves behind for the future • - survival and leisure activities???? POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
TYPES OF MATERIAL CULTURE FOLK POPULAR Found in small, homogenous, isolated groups tends to be more isolated and rural More likely to vary from place to place at a given time • Found in large, heterogeneous societies • Practiced by more people over a larger portion of the Earth’s surface • More likely to vary from time to time at a given place
ISSUE #1 Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?
Origins of Folk & Popular Cultures • Hearths of folk culture may be anonymous and multiple • ex. Folk music and agricultural connections in Vietnam • Hearths of popular culturetend to be located in MDCs • ex. Popular music and production for sale to mass audience (hip hop music, fast food/McDonalds)
Type 1 • How would a folk song about agriculture in Southeast Asia spread/diffuse? • How would Justin Bieber’s music spread/diffuse?
Diffusion of Folk & Popular Cultures Folk Popular Diffuses faster and to more places Pattern of hierarchical diffusion from node on down Spreads through modern communications and transportation EX – Organized Sports/Soccer • Diffuses more slowly and on a smaller scale • Primarily through migration/relocation diffusion • Also through word of mouth (orally) Ex - Amish
Amish Settlements in the U.S. Fig. 4-3: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S.
LIST… • 2 examples of folk culture • 2 examples of popular culture
Tin Pan Alley & Popular Music Fig. 4-1: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York in the early 20th c. The area later moved north from 28th St to Times Square.
A Mental Map of Hip Hop Fig. 4-2: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.
World Cup Fans French, German, and Italian fans at 2006 World Cup (eventually won by Italy, which broke Mr. Oswald’s heart!). We destroy the sport with our boring style of play!!!
ISSUE #2 Why is Folk Culture Clustered?
ISOLATION PROMOTES CULTURAL DIVERSITY • Unique folk customs are a result of a group’s long-term isolation from other groups (even those close to them) • This is why folk customs are clustered vary from place to place at the same time • Read the Himalayan art section on your own
Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions Fig. 4-4: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains. - Shows how folk custom are influenced by both cultural institutions (religion) and by environmental processes (climate, landforms, vegetation…)
TYPE 1 • List as many ways you can think of that the physical environment/climate affect culture. You can give specific examples if that helps.
INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • Environment is one, not the only, factor that influences culture !!!!!!! (cultural values also play a part) • Due to lack of technology, folk societies are even more influenced by the environment • Environment and cultural values have a strong impact on food and shelter in folk cultures Environ-ment
DISTINCTIVE FOOD PREFERENCES • Folk food habits derive from the environment (why? – people eat mostly plants and animals) • People adapt their diets based on their environment ex. abundant wood supply leads to slow stewing in NE) - know terroir – pp.121-122
TraditionalVegetable Garden, Istanbul Fig. 4-5: The bostan, or traditional vegetable garden, provides fresh vegetables in a large city such as Istanbul
Food habits are also affected by cultural traditions…. • Different groups with different traditions will have unique diets that are not solely a result of the environment (soups in Transylvania, seating patterns at tables…) • Food attractions and taboos will also play a major role in diet a kitchen is often a BIG clue to the family’s ethnicity
FOOD ATTRACTIONS and TABOOS ATTRACTIONS TABOOS Some foods are avoided due to negative forces, characteristics, or associations - Muslims don’t eat pork - Hindus don’t eat cows - MbumKpau women in Chad avoid goats and chicken before getting pregnant • Some foods are eaten based on appearance or qualities (real or perceived) • Exs. Abipone Indians eat jaguars and bulls • Mandrake root in Mediterranean associated with sexual prowess
Hog Production & Food Cultures Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
FOLK HOUSING • Folk housing will display the following: - distinctive building materials - distinctive form and orientation - influence of the environment
Home Locations in Southeast Asia Fig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).
House Types in Western China Fig. 4-8: Four communities in western China all have distinctive house types.
Kashgar House, western China Kashgar houses have second floor open-air patios
Turpan House, western China Turpan is located in a deep valley with little open land. Second stories are avoided because of strong winds
Dunhuang House, western China Dunhuang houses have walled central courtyards, covered with an open air grape arbor.
Yinchuan House, China Liz Lewis: …from outsiders Yinchuan houses are built around large open courtyards which provide seclusion from ousi
U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMS • Older houses display local folk-culture traditions (why?) • Much more difficult to detect distinctions in modern homes (why?) • Kniffen’s nodes of U.S. folk homes: • New England 2. Middle Atlantic 3. Lower Chesapeake
U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMS cont. • Know the different types for each: • 4 types of NE home • “I” house in MA • 1-story w/ chimney in LC
Diffusion of House Types in U.S. Fig. 4-9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U.S. and then diffused into the interior as migrants moved west.
Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the 18th & 19th centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.
ISSUE #3 Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?
POP CULTURE IS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED BECAUSE… • It diffuses very quickly across Earth, unlike folk culture - this diffusion relies on people having high economic development to acquire the material aspects of pop culture (what does this mean?) - Remember: pop culture varies from time to time at the same place ‘50s today
DIFFUSION OF POPULAR HOUSING, CLOTHING & FOOD • Differences in these categories vary much less now in MDCs than they used to (why?) • List 5-7 characteristics of a suburb (what do people wear, eat, types of buildings, types of activities, forms of transportation……)
POPULAR HOUSING STYLES • Newer homes reflect how customs vary more in time than place • Years right after WWII = modern style • Since 1960s = neo-eclectic • See “popular housing” graphic organizer and page 128
U.S. House Types, 1945-1990 Fig. 4-11: Several variations of the “modern style” were dominant from the 1940s into the 1970s. Since then, “neo-eclectic” styles have become the dominant type of house construction in the U.S.
Write the first thing that comes to mind in terms of clothing for a …..
CLOTHING STYLES • Clothing habits reflect: • Income • Social forms (job characteristics) • MDCs of NA/WE • Clothing usually reflects occupation rather than environment • Higher incomes greatly influence clothing and changing styles (especially for women – why?) • Rapid communication/technology spreads fashion • Ironically, has led to more awareness of folk clothing (can be used to preserve memories/promote tourism – p.128)