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Transnational Studies SOC 783

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Transnational Studies SOC 783

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  1. Transnational StudiesSOC 783 B. Nadya Jaworsky Room 3.59 Mondays 16.00 – 17.00 Tuesdays 14.00 – 15.00

  2. Final Research Essay Timeline •  November 12, 2012 - One-paragraph statement explaining your choice of topic is due via e-mail. • December 12, 2012 - A short (1-2 pp.) preliminary summary of your work is due via e-mail. •  January 4, 2012 - FINAL ESSAY IS DUE FOR MASTER’S STUDENT SITTING FOR THE STATE EXAM. •  January 22, 2012 - FINAL ESSAY IS DUE VIA E-MAIL by 23:59.

  3. TQS shorthand: • I am working on the TOPIC of… • …because I want to find out how or why... (QUESTION) • …so that I can help others understand how or why.... (Significance/SO WHAT)

  4. Use the parts of an argument to guide your research: • What’s the answer to your research question? (CLAIM) • Why should I believe that? • (REASONS) • How do you know that reason to be true? (EVIDENCE) • But have you considered this view? (ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & RESPONSE)

  5. What your research paper should look like: • Introduction • Literature/Theory Review • Method/methodology • Findings/Data • Discussion (YOUR ARGUMENT!) • Conclusion • References (use ASA Style Guide)

  6. Definitions of migrant transnationalism • Basch et al (1994): the processes by which immigrants forge and sustain multi-stranded social relations that link together their societies of origin and settlement. • More recent scholarship: Transnational migration as taking place within fluid social spaces constantly reworked by migrants embedded in more than one society at a time.

  7. Critiques of a transnational perspective • Ambiguity of definition • Too easily seen as incompatible with assimilation • Nothing new • Only applicable for first generation • Only applicable to certain areas (Latin America) • Dismissing national border premature

  8. Approaches to studying transnational migration • Production of different transnational topographies • A. dispersion and assimilation; • B. transnational exchange and reciprocity; • C. transnational networks; • D. transnational communities) [Faist] • “Social fields” as multiple interlocking networks of social relationships [Levitt & Glick Schiller]

  9. Approaches to studying transnational migration (con’t) • Transnationalism ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ [Smith and Guarnizo] • Narrow and broad transnationalism [Itzigsohn] • Core and expanded transnationalism [Guarnizo]

  10. Approaches to studying transnational migration (con’t) • Much greater diversification of form and content within present-day transnationalism [Morawska] • ‘Ways of being’ and ‘ways of belonging’ [Glick Schiller] • Newness vs. differences in recent transnational migration (dependency on remittances, being pushed into transnational lifestyles, adapting transnational livelihood strategies, highly developed communication and transport) • Question of the second generation • Still, focus on significance & durability of borders

  11. Transnationalism: the ECONOMIC realm • Transnational migration as a by-product of late capitalism • “High points of globalization” • The effect of remittances (in some countries exceeding the private and official capital inflows) • Economic transnationalism varies by class • Subregional context matters

  12. Transnationalism: the POLITICAL realm • Three domains of action (Østergaard-Nielsen): • Homeland politics (in host countries around homeland issues; lobbying) • Immigrant politics (to improve social status in the host country) • Translocal politics (includes activities migrants undertake to support specific localities in the home country) • Forms of transnational citizenship [Fox]: parallel; simultaneous; integrated

  13. Transnationalism: the SOCIAL realm • Family/Kinship Relations • Gendered experiences • ‘Feminization of migration’ • Circulating between places of settlement and origin; gaining social capital • Intrinsic asymmetries in relations between migrants and nonmigrants • Class and race: differentiated nature of labor migration

  14. Transnationalism: the CULTURAL realm • Globalization as equal (or not!) to Westernization • Borderlands as a “transnational unit” (Paredes) • Transculturation – when foreign material enters a new social context (Ortiz) • “Migration mélange” – mixing cultural traits crates a hybridity continuum (Nederveen Pieterse)

  15. Transnationalism: the RELIGIOUS realm • Religion is the ultimate boundary crosser • Is often combined with culture • Supports and is transformed by all aspects of the migration experience • Function of building social capital • Socialization into politics • May help with access to government assistance and information

  16. Transnationalism: Arenas for future research • Space, place and the nature of embeddedness • The variable consequences of transnationalism (both negative as well as positive outcomes) • Comparative studies of international migration and internal migration

  17. Future Directions for Transnational Migration Studies • the need to include nonmigrants as well as migrants • consider the multiple sites and levels of transnational social fields beyond just the sending and receiving country, • rethink assumptions about belonging, • and trace the historical continuity of these processes

  18. Methodological Implications: Space, Place, Embededness • Multi-sited, or cosmopolitan ethnographies • “Extended case” method and “reflexive ethnography” • Examining the “scale shifts” within social movements • But! We should be careful with nationally defined categories; and also keep in mind addressing gender, race and class in the research. • Spatial scales, cultural-historical particularity of places, and the global nature of the flows produce different kinds of transnational social fields

  19. Methodological Implications: Variable Consequences • More studies show positive than negative • BUT sending states become dependent on migrants • Receiving country’s migration policies • Under which conditions does migration have positive or negative consequences? • Are remittances spent effectively? • How are race and gender hierarchies affected? • What is the role of collective resources (HTAs, etc)?

  20. Miraflores, D.R.

  21. What are “Transnational Villages?” • Actual migration is not necessary to be a member • They emerge at least partially because of social remittances (the ideas behaviors and social capital that flow from receiving to sending communities) • They create and are created by organizations that themselves come to act across borders • They are studies in contrast

  22. SOCIAL REMITTANCES Patterns of interaction with the host society: • Recipient observers • Instrumental adapters • Purposeful innovators (sponges)

  23. SOCIAL REMITTANCES Patterns of social remittance evolution • Migrants abandon some of social/cultural tools they arrive with • Migrants’ social/cultural tools unchanged (recipient observers) • Migrants add new items that do not change existing tools (instrumental adapters) • Migrants ideas and practice combine with host-country norms (purposeful innovators)

  24. SOCIAL REMITTANCES Types of social remittances: • Normative structures – ideas, values and beliefs – pp. 59-60 • Systems of practice – the actions shaped by normative structures • Social capital

  25. CULTURAL DIFFUSION AND SOCIAL REMITTANCES How social remittances are transmitted differently from other types of global cultural dissemination: • It is possible to specify how social remittances flow • they are transmitted systematically and intentionally • they are transmitted between individuals that know one another or have mutual social ties • the timing can be multi-staged – macro-level material can come first and ease the way

  26. What determines the nature and the magnitude of the impact of social remittances? • The nature of the remittance itself • The nature of the transnational system • The characteristics of the messenger • The target audience • Differences in sending & receiving countries • Features of the transmission process

  27. Re-shaping stages of the life cycle • Childrearing; what is it like to be brought up between borders? • School • Earning a living • Adult family life • Feasibility of return

  28. Making values from two worlds fit • Gender • Race • Right and wrong

  29. Transnational Politics – Miraflores in the 1990s • Structure • Articulating a discourse that was more transnational in tone • Policy • Executing campaign strategies across borders • Leadership • Financing

  30. What about RACE?

  31. Core themes • Transnational Villages • Social Remittances • Cultural Diffusion • Migration and Gender • Migration and Race • Values between two worlds • Transnational Politics • Transnational Religion