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Fundamentals of Information Systems Fourth Edition. Chapter 8 Systems Development. Principles and Learning Objectives.

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principles and learning objectives
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Effective systems development requires a team effort of stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel, and it starts with careful planning
    • Identify the key participants in the systems development process and discuss their roles
    • Define the term information systems planning and discuss the importance of planning a project

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Systems development often uses different approaches and tools such as traditional development, prototyping, rapid application development, end-user development, computer-aided software engineering, and object-oriented development to select, implement, and monitor projects
    • Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-user systems development life cycles

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued1
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Systems development often uses different approaches and tools such as traditional development, prototyping, rapid application development, end-user development, computer-aided software engineering, and object-oriented development to select, implement, and monitor projects (continued)
    • Discuss the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools and the object-oriented approach to systems development

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued2
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Systems development starts with investigation and analysis of existing systems
    • State the purpose of systems investigation
    • State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss some of the tools and techniques used in this phase of systems development

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued3
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Designing new systems or modifying existing ones should always be aimed at helping an organization achieve its goals
    • State the purpose of systems design and discuss the differences between logical and physical systems design
    • Define the term RFP and discuss how this document is used to drive the acquisition of hardware and software

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued4
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • The primary emphasis of systems implementation is to make sure that the right information is delivered to the right person in the right format at the right time
    • State the purpose of systems implementation and discuss the various activities associated with this phase of systems development

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

principles and learning objectives continued5
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Maintenance and review add to the useful life of a system but can consume large amounts of resources, so they benefit from the same rigorous methods and project management techniques applied to systems development
    • State the importance of systems and software maintenance and discuss the activities involved
    • Describe the systems review process

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

why learn about systems development
Why Learn About Systems Development?
  • Important to learn how to:
    • Initiate systems development process
    • Analyze your needs with help of IS personnel
  • Learn how a project can be:
    • Planned
    • Aligned with corporate goals
    • Rapidly developed

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

an overview of systems development
An Overview of Systems Development
  • Managers and employees in all functional areas work together in a business information system
  • Users help and often lead the way with development process
  • Participants in systems development:
    • Determine when a project fails
    • Are critical to systems development success

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

participants in systems development
Participants in Systems Development
  • Development team consists of the following:
    • Project managers: coordinate system development effort
    • Stakeholders: directly or indirectly benefit from the project
    • Users: interact with the system regularly
    • Systems analysts: analyze and design business systems
    • Programmers: modify or develop programs to satisfy user requirements
    • Various support personnel: specialists, vendors

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

information systems planning and aligning corporate and is goals
Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
  • Information systems planning: translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives
  • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems development effort
  • Determining whether organizational and IS goals are aligned can be difficult

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

information systems planning and aligning corporate and is goals continued
Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals (continued)

Figure 8.2: Information Systems Planning

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems development life cycles
Systems Development Life Cycles
  • The systems development process is also called a systems development life cycle (SDLC)
  • Common SDLCs
    • Traditional systems development life cycle
    • Prototyping
    • Rapid application development (RAD)
    • End-user development

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the traditional systems development life cycle
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle

Figure 8.3: The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the traditional systems development life cycle continued
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued)
  • Systems investigation: problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business
  • Systems analysis: study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement
  • Systems design: answers the question “How will the information system do what it must do to obtain the problem solution?”

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the traditional systems development life cycle continued1
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued)
  • Systems implementation: creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation
  • Systems maintenance and review: ensures the system operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

prototyping
Prototyping
  • An iterative approach to systems development

Figure 8.4: Prototyping

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

slide19
Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, Joint Application Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches
  • Rapid application development (RAD)
    • Systems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development
  • Some iterative development approaches allow the system to change as it is being developed
    • Agile development: frequent face-to-face meetings between systems developers and users
    • XP programming: pairs of programmers work together to develop robust systems quickly

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

slide20
Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, Joint Application Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches (continued)
  • Joint application development (JAD)
    • Process for data collection and requirements analysis in which users, stakeholders, and IS professionals work together to analyze existing systems, propose possible solutions, and define the requirements of a new or modified system
    • Used extensively by RAD
    • Often utilizes group support systems (GSS) software to foster positive group interactions

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the end user systems development life cycle
The End-User Systems Development Life Cycle
  • End-user systems development: any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users
  • End-user-developed systems can be structured as complementary to, rather than in conflict with, existing and emerging information systems

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

outsourcing and on demand computing
Outsourcing and On Demand Computing
  • An outside consulting firm or computer company that specializes in systems development can take over some or all of the development and operations activities
  • Reasons for using outsourcing and on demand computing
    • Reducing costs, obtaining state-of-the-art technology, eliminating staffing and personnel problems, and increasing technological flexibility

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

use of computer aided software engineering case tools
Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE): tools that automate many of the tasks required in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to the SDLC
    • Instill a high degree of rigor and standardization to the entire systems development process
    • Upper-CASE tools focus on investigation, analysis, and design
    • Lower-CASE tools focus on implementation

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

use of computer aided software engineering case tools continued
Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools (continued)

Table 8.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of CASE Tools

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems development
Object-Oriented Systems Development
  • Object-oriented systems development (OOSD): approach to systems development that combines the logic of the systems development life cycle with the power of object-oriented modeling and programming

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems development continued
Object-Oriented Systems Development (continued)
  • Object-oriented systems development typically involves:
    • Identifying potential problems and opportunities within the organization that would be appropriate for the OO approach
    • Defining the kind of system users require
    • Designing the system
    • Programming or modifying modules
    • Evaluation by users
    • Periodic review and modification

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems investigation
Systems Investigation
  • What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve?
  • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
  • What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system?
  • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
  • What are the associated risks?

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

initiating systems investigation
Initiating Systems Investigation
  • Systems request form: document filled out by someone who wants the IS department to initiate systems investigation
    • Helps rationalize and prioritize the activities of the IS department
    • Includes the following information:
      • Problems in and opportunities for system
      • Objectives in investigation
      • Overview, costs, and benefits of proposed system

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

feasibility analysis
Feasibility Analysis
  • Technical feasibility: hardware, software, and other system components
  • Economic feasibility: predicted benefits vs. cost and time
  • Legal feasibility: limitations of laws and regulations on project
  • Operational feasibility: logistical and motivational considerations
  • Schedule feasibility: completion of project in reasonable amount of time

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems investigation
Object-Oriented Systems Investigation
  • Key objects can be identified during systems investigation
  • Use case diagram
    • Part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) used in object-oriented systems development
    • Actors represent objects
    • Use cases represent events

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems investigation continued
Object-Oriented Systems Investigation (continued)

Figure 8.8: Use Case Diagram for a Kayak Rental Application

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the systems investigation report
The Systems Investigation Report
  • Systems investigation report
    • Summary of the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis
    • Recommendation of a course of action
      • Continue systems analysis
      • Modify the project
      • Abandon the project
    • Reviewed by steering committee of senior management and users

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the systems investigation report continued
The Systems Investigation Report (continued)

Figure 8.9: A Typical Table of Contents for a Systems Investigation Report

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems analysis
Systems Analysis
  • Answers the question “What must the information system do to solve the problem?”
  • Overall emphasis of systems analysis is:
    • Gathering data on the existing system
    • Determining the requirements for the new system
    • Considering alternatives within these constraints
    • Investigating the feasibility of the solutions
  • Primary outcome: prioritized list of systems requirements

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data collection
Data Collection
  • Identifying sources of data
    • Internal sources
    • External sources
  • Collecting data
    • Interviews: structured and unstructured
    • Direct observation
    • Questionnaires: structured or unstructured
      • Used when data sources are spread over a wide geographic area

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data collection continued
Data Collection (continued)

Figure 8.10: Internal and External Sources of Data for Systems Analysis

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Data analysis
    • Manipulation of collected data so that systems development team can use the data
  • Data modeling
    • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams: objects, attributes, and associations
  • Activity modeling
    • Data-flow diagrams (DFDs): objects, associations, and activities

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data analysis continued
Data Analysis (continued)

Figure 8.12: Data and Activity Modeling (a) An entity-relationship diagram

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data analysis continued1
Data Analysis (continued)

Figure 8.12: Data and Activity Modeling (b) A data-flow diagram

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data analysis continued2
Data Analysis (continued)

Figure 8.12: Data and Activity Modeling (c) A semantic description of the business process

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

requirements analysis
Requirements Analysis
  • Determines user, stakeholder, and organizational needs through the following techniques:
    • Asking directly: best for stable systems
    • Critical success factors: asks for critical factors in interviewee’s area
    • IS plan: translates strategic plan into initiatives
    • Requirements analysis tools: CASE tools

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

requirements analysis continued
Requirements Analysis (continued)

Figure 8.13: Converting Organizational Goals into Systems Requirements

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems analysis
Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
  • Identifying problems or potential opportunities
  • Identifying key participants and collecting data
  • Uses classes and generalization/specialization hierarchies instead of data-flow diagrams and flowcharts

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented systems analysis continued
Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued)

Figure 8.14: Generalization/Specialization Hierarchy Diagram for Single and Tandem Kayak Classes

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the systems analysis report
The Systems Analysis Report
  • Systems analysis report should cover:
    • Strengths and weaknesses of the existing system from a stakeholder’s perspective
    • User/stakeholder requirements for the new system (also called the functional requirements)
    • Organizational requirements for the new system
    • Description of what the new information system should do to solve the problem

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems design
Systems Design
  • Answers the question “How will the information system solve a problem?”
  • Has two dimensions: logical and physical
  • Logical design: description of the functional requirements of a system
  • Physical design: specification of the characteristics of the system components necessary to put the logical design into action

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented design
Object-Oriented Design
  • Design key objects and classes of objects in the new or updated system
    • Consideration of the problem domain, the operating environment, and the user interface
    • Consideration of the sequence of events that must happen for the system to function correctly
  • Scenario: sequence of events
    • Can be diagrammed in a sequence diagram

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

object oriented design continued
Object-Oriented Design (continued)

Figure 8.16: A Sequence Diagram to Add a New KayakItem Scenario

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

generating systems design alternatives
Generating Systems Design Alternatives
  • Request for proposal (RFP): document that specifies in detail required resources such as hardware and software
  • Financial options
    • Purchasing
    • Leasing
    • Renting

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

generating systems design alternatives continued
Generating Systems Design Alternatives (continued)
  • Evaluating and Selecting a Systems Design
    • Preliminary evaluation
      • To dismiss unwanted proposals
      • Begins after all proposals have been submitted
    • Final evaluation
      • Detailed investigation of the proposals offered by the vendors remaining after the preliminary evaluation

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the design report
The Design Report
  • Design report: primary result of systems design, reflecting the decisions made and preparing the way for systems implementation
  • System specifications include technical description of the following:
    • System outputs, inputs, and user interfaces
    • Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, and procedure components and the way these components are related

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

the design report continued
The Design Report (continued)

Figure 8.18: A Typical Table of Contents for a Systems Design Report

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems implementation
Systems Implementation

Figure 8.19: Typical Steps in Systems Implementation

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

acquiring hardware from an is vendor
Acquiring Hardware from an IS Vendor
  • IS vendor: company that offers hardware, software, telecommunications systems, databases, IS personnel, and/or other computer-related resources
  • Buying computer hardware
  • Leasing computer hardware
  • Renting computer hardware
  • “Pay-as-you-go,” “on-demand,” or “utility” computing

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

acquiring software make or buy
Acquiring Software: Make or Buy?
  • Make-or-buy decision: decision regarding whether to obtain software from external or internal sources
  • Choices include:
    • Purchase software externally
    • Develop software in-house
    • Used a blend of external and internal software development
    • Rent software

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

acquiring database and telecommunications systems
Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems
  • Databases and telecommunications systems require a blend of hardware and software
  • New hardware is acquired from an IS vendor
  • New or upgraded software might be purchased or developed in-house

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

user preparation
User Preparation
  • Process of readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for new systems
  • Provide users with proper training

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

is personnel hiring and training
IS Personnel: Hiring and Training
  • Personnel that might be needed for the new system
    • IS manager
    • Systems analysts
    • Computer programmers
    • Data-entry operators
  • Training programs should be conducted for the IS personnel who will be using the computer system

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

site preparation
Site Preparation
  • Preparation of the location of a new system
  • Making room for equipment
  • Special wiring and air conditioning
  • Special floor
  • Security system
  • Additional power circuits

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

data preparation
Data Preparation
  • Also called data conversion
  • Ensures all files and databases are ready to be used with new computer software and systems

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

installation
Installation
  • Physically placing the computer equipment on the site and making it operational
  • Normally the manufacturer is responsible for installing computer equipment
  • Someone from the organization (usually the IS manager) should oversee the process

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

testing
Testing
  • Unit testing: testing of individual programs
  • System testing: testing the entire system of programs
  • Volume testing: testing the application with a large amount of data
  • Integration testing: testing all related systems together
  • Acceptance testing: conducting any tests required by the user

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

start up
Start-Up
  • Process of making the final tested information system fully operational
  • Approaches
    • Direct conversion (plunge, direct cutover): stopping the old system and starting the new one on a given date
    • Phase-in approach (piecemeal): slowly replacing old system components with new system components
    • Pilot start-up: run new system with one group of users
    • Parallel start-up: running old and new systems together for a period of time

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

user acceptance
User Acceptance
  • User acceptance document: formal agreement signed by the user that states that a phase of the installation or the complete system is approved
    • Legal document that removes or reduces IS vendor’s liability

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems operation and maintenance
Systems Operation and Maintenance
  • Systems operation: use of a new or modified system
    • Help desk provides support
  • Systems maintenance: checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals
    • Difficult and costly for legacy systems

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems review
Systems Review
  • Process of analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended
    • Often compares the performance and benefits of the system as it was designed with the actual performance and benefits of the system in operation
  • Event-driven review: triggered by a problem or opportunity such as an error, a corporate merger, or a new market for products
  • Time-driven review: performed after a specified amount of time

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

systems review continued
Systems Review (continued)

Table 8.4: Examples of Review Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

summary
Summary
  • Information systems planning: translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives
  • Common systems development life cycles: traditional, prototyping, rapid application development (RAD), and end-user development
  • Phases of traditional systems development life cycle: systems investigation, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems maintenance and review

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Systems investigation: problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business
  • Systems analysis: study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement
  • Systems design: defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition

summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • Systems implementation: creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation
  • Systems maintenance and review: ensures that the system operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fourth Edition