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MCD & LDC. MDC: More developed country is further along on the development spectrum. LDC: Less developed countries are in an earlier stage of development. Some like to use phrasing like: developing or emerging Implying that some progress has already been made. HDI: Human Development Index.

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mcd ldc
MCD & LDC
  • MDC: More developed country is further along on the development spectrum.
  • LDC: Less developed countries are in an earlier stage of development. Some like to use phrasing like: developing or emerging
    • Implying that some progress has already been made.
hdi human development index
HDI: Human Development Index
  • 3 factors: economic, social, and demographic
  • The UN chooses 1 econ factor, 2 social factors, 1 demo factor.
  • Econ: GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
  • Social: literacy & amount of education
  • Demo: Life expectancy
slide3
HDI
  • Highest HDI is 1.0 or 100%.
  • The HDI is calculated every year, and has been since 1990.
  • Highest include many places in Europe. Norway is .971 (Highest ever in 2009)
  • Lowest in 2009 Niger .340
slide4
GDP
  • Gross Domestic Product is the value of the total output of goods and services during a year.
  • Divide GDP by total population and it averages the amount made by the average individual.
  • 2009: GDP in U.S. was $14 trillion with a population of 307 million.
    • GDP per capita was $45,600
  • The higher the per capita GDP the greater chances for citizens to have a good life.
other economic factors
Other Economic Factors
  • Jobs, Productivity, & Availability of Consumer Goods
    • Jobs fall in to 3 categories:
    • Primary (includes agriculture)
    • Secondary (includes manufacturing)
    • Tertiary (includes services)
job sectors
Job Sectors
  • Primary: directing extract materials from the earth (mining, farming, fishing)
  • Secondary: Processing & transforming raw materials. (manufacturing of all kinds)
  • Tertiary: provision of goods and services in exchange for $. (retail, banking, law, education, government)
jobs on gdp
Jobs on GDP
  • In order to determine levels of development you must figure out what percentage of the GDP each sector represents.
    • LDCs: High percent of jobs in primary sector
    • MDCs: percentage of jobs in secondary sector is diminishing
    • MDCs: percentage of jobs in tertiary sector is very large
productivity
Productivity
  • Productivity is the value of a product compared to the amount of labor necessary to make it.
  • Its measured by value added.
  • Value added: gross value of the product minus the cost of raw material and energy.
  • Workers in MDCs produce more with less effort.
    • Why?
consumer goods
Consumer Goods
  • The wealth generated by production is used to purchase consumer goods.
    • Especially goods related to transportation and communication.
  • In an MDC these products are accessible to almost all residents, while in an LDC these products do not play a role in daily life.
  • In LDCs these goods tend to show the gap between the “haves” and the “have nots” in a society.
social indicators education
Social Indicators: Education
  • Generally: Higher HDI the better the education services.
    • One aspect is the number of students per teacher. Fewer students means more individual attention.
    • Literacy Rate: MDCs this rate exceeds 98% compared to 60% in LDCs
  • In LDCs education DOES received a higher percentage of the GDP.
social factors health welfare
Social Factors: Health & Welfare
  • In MDCs people are healthier which is often influenced by diet.
  • According to the UN guidelines MDCs often have a higher caloric intake than necessary, while LDCs get less than recommended.
  • In most European countries government pays for 70% or more of health costs. In LDCs people pay more than half.
  • The exception is the U.S. where people pay on average 55% of their healthcare costs.
demographic indicators
Demographic Indicators
  • Life Expectancy
  • Infant Mortality Rate
  • Natural Increase Rate
  • Crude Birth Rate
  • Just as in the Stages of Population growth, these affect the level of development of a country.
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