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  1. Atheists’ Myths: Part 3 Richard Deem

  2. For the time will come when men will not put up with sound doctrine. Instead, to suit their own desires, they will gather around them a great number of teachers to say what their itching ears want to hear. They will turn their ears away from the truth and turn aside to myths. (2 Timothy 4:3-4)

  3. Atheist Myth #3: Christianity Was Invented by Paul, Not Founded by Jesus of Nazareth

  4. Paul Invented Christianity? • Atheists claim that Paul invented the majority of Christian doctrines • Jesus did not teach the majority of doctrines taught by Paul • Paul did not know anything about the Jesus of the gospels, but just knew the “Cosmic Christ”

  5. Paul Meets Jesus "But it happened that as I was on my way, approaching Damascus about noontime, a very bright light suddenly flashed from heaven all around me, and I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?' And I answered, 'Who are You, Lord?' And He said to me, 'I am Jesus the Nazarene, whom you are persecuting.' "(Acts 22:6-8)

  6. Did Paul Invent the Christian Doctrines?

  7. Basic Doctrines Taught Throughout the Bible

  8. Basic Doctrines Taught Throughout the Bible

  9. Basic Doctrines Taught Throughout the Bible

  10. Paul Knew Jesus’ Teachings

  11. Did Paul Know the Real Jesus?

  12. Paul: The Man Jesus

  13. Conclusion • The core doctrines of Christianity are taught not only by Paul, but also by Jesus, the apostles, and Old Testament saints. • The atheist claim that Paul invented Christianity is a myth

  14. More In-Depth Research Papers • Paul Invented Christianity? Is the Founder of the Christian Religion Paul of Tarsus or Jesus of Nazareth? • History of the Bible: How The Bible Came To Us • The Bible Has Been Changed Over the Centuries From the Original?

  15. More Atheist Myths GodAndScience.org

  16. Creation Update:“Evolution” of Fairness and Punishment

  17. Did Cooperation Evolve? • Evolutionary psychology claims that human interaction is largely a function of the genes and that it evolved along with our physical characteristics to make us what we are • Accordingly, humans possess an innate social psychology evolved for cooperation within our small-scale Paleolithic societies • With the emergence of agriculture these behaviors were mistakenly extended to non-kin individuals, as societies expanded

  18. Did Cooperation Evolve? • Determinism claims that humans lack free will, but react to stimuli in a predictable, programmed way

  19. Study Design • Money-swapping games were played by 2,148 people from 15 small societies around the world • The amount of money used was the equivalent of one day’s wage • Market Integration was measured by the percentage of calories that that were purchased

  20. Dictator Game • Two anonymous players are allotted a sum of money (the stake) in a one-shot interaction • Player 1 must decide how to divide this sum between himself and Player 2 • Player 2 receives the allocation (offer), and the game ends • Player 1’s offer to Player 2 provides a measure of Player 1’s behavioral fairness

  21. Ultimatum Game • Two anonymous players are again allotted a sum in a one-shot interaction • Player 1 can offer a portion of this to Player 2 • Player 2, before hearing the actual offer from Player 1, must decide whether to accept or reject each of the possible offers • If Player 2 specified that he or she would accept the amount of the actual offer, then Player 2 receives the offered amount and Player 1 gets the remainder. • If Player 2 specified that he would reject the offered amount, then both players receive zero • If people are motivated purely by money maximization, Player 2 will always accept any positive offer • Realizing this, Player 1 should offer the smallest nonzero amount • Because this is a one-shot anonymous interaction, Player 2’s willingness to reject provides a measure of punishment • Player 1’s offer measures a combination of social motivations and an assessment of the likelihood of rejection, providing a second behavioral measure of fairness.

  22. Ultimatum Game Example • $100 stake • Player 1 offers $20 to Player 2

  23. Third-Party Punishment Game • Two players are allotted a stake and a third player also receives the equivalent of one-half of the stake • Player 1 must decide how much to allocate to Player 2, who has no choices • Player 3, before hearing the actual amount that Player 1 allocated to Player 2, has to decide whether to pay 20% or more of his allocation to punish Player 1 for each of the possible offers • If punished, Player 1 loses triple the amount paid by Player 3

  24. Third-Party Punishment Example • $100 stake • Player 1 offers $10 to Player 2 (keeping $90)

  25. Mean Dictator Game Offers for Each Population vs. Market Integration J. Henrich et al. 2010. Science 327: 1480-1484.

  26. Creation Update:Should Extremely Small Probabilities be Considered Scientifically Possible?

  27. Background • Many atheists claim that if something is possible, it should be considered as having a basis in scientific reality • Mere possibility is not an adequate basis for asserting scientific plausibility • This paper presents a method of objectively measuring the plausibility of any chance hypothesis (The Universal Plausibility Metric – UPM)

  28. Calculating the UPM • 4.4 × 1017 seconds since the Big Bang • Plank time (minimum time interval) is 10-43 seconds • Number of possible quantum transitions since the Big Bang would be 1043 × 1017 = 1060 • number of protons, neutrons and electrons is 1080 • Universal probability bound is: 1043 × 1017 × 1080 = 10140

  29. Calculating the UPM • qΩu = Universe = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1080 particles = 10140 • qΩg = Galaxy = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1067 particles = 10127 • qΩs = Solar System = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1057 particles = 10117 • qΩu = Earth = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1042 particles = 10102

  30. Origin of Life • Origin of life theories are dependent upon the maximum chemical reaction rate • Shortest transition time is 10-15 sec • Complete chemical reactions require 10-12 sec • Biochemical reactions require 10-9 - 10-6 sec • Exceedingly generous time of 10-13 sec

  31. Origin of Life • qΩu = Universe = 1013 reactions/sec × 1017 secs × 1078 atoms = 10108 • qΩg = Galaxy = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1066 atoms = 1096 • qΩs = Solar System = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1055 atoms = 1085 • qΩu = Earth = 1043 trans/sec × 1017 secs × 1040 atoms = 1070

  32. Conclusions • Any scientific claim that produces probabilities less than the UPM are implausible and must be rejected on a scientific basis • Atheism is irrational