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American Council of Engineering Companies Jennifer BrownCAWCD Board of Directors February 26, 2019
Central Arizona Project 336-mile aqueduct stretches from Lake Havasu to Tucson 14 pumping plants lift water nearly 3,000 feet 10 siphons, 3 tunnels Lake Pleasant/New Waddell Dam & Pump Generating Station Delivers more than 500 billion gallons of water annually Delivery began in 1985 in Maricopa County Construction complete in 1993 Watch CAP 101
CAP Service Area 3 counties 23,790 square miles < 8” annual rainfall 5 million people (approx. 80% of Arizona’s population) 350,000 acres of irrigated agriculture 11 Native American tribes
Who Gets CAP Water? Municipal & Industrial 33% Agriculture 26% Recharge 6% Native American Communities 35%
CAP and the Economy ASU’s W.P. Carey School of Business conducted a study to quantify the economic impact of the Colorado River water supply delivered by CAP. It has generated: Nearly $2 trillion of Arizona’s gross state product $100 billion per year in economic benefit which is ~1/3 of Arizona’s gross state product More than 1.6 million job-years in 2010 (ASU, 2014)
CAGRD’s Relationship to CAP CAGRD is not a separate entity CAGRD is a special function of CAP funded solely by its members CAGRD and CAP both serve the same three-county service area – Maricopa, Pima and Pinal CAGRD members pay CAP’s 10-cent and 4-cent property taxes and all costs of CAGRD membership CAGRD members are a subset of CAP’s constituents
CAGRD’s Role in Water Management Arizona requires new development in major metropolitan areas to have a 100-year assured water supply Entities that lack access to renewable water supplies, but have access to groundwater, may join CAGRD CAGRD membership makes groundwater use consistent with Arizona water management goals CAGRD members pay CAGRD to replenish the groundwater they use
Colorado River Basin Upper Basin States: Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming Lower Basin States: Arizona, California, and Nevada 7.5 million acre-feet (MAF) annual allocation of Colorado River water for the Upper Basin, 7.5 MAF for the Lower Basin and 1.5 MAF for Mexico Lower Basin allocations: - AZ (2.8 MAF) - CA (4.4 MAF) - NV (0.3 MAF)
Lower Basin Water Allocation Lower Basin (AZ, CA, NV + Mex.) 9.6 MAFLake Mead evaporation losses 0.6 MAF Average Inflow 9.0 MAF Structural Deficit 1.2 MAF Given basic apportionments in the Lower Basin, the allotment in Mexico, and an 8.23 MAF from Lake Powell, Lake Mead declines about 12 feet each year.
Impacts of the Structural Deficit • Results in a decline of 12+ feet in Lake Mead every year when releases from Lake Powell are “normal” (8.23 million acre-feet, MAF) • Results in a decline of 4 feet in Lake Mead every year when releases from Lake Powell are “balancing” (9.0 MAF) • Drives Lower Basin to shortage • CAP forced to bear obligations of others • Evaporation and other system losses • Lower Basin’s half of Mexican Treaty obligation
Colorado River Shortage Shortage is a reduction of Colorado River water to users and is declared by the Secretary of the Department of Interior based on the water elevation of Lake Mead. Shortage is declared in August based on projected January lake levels and take force in January for the new year. Lake Mead elevations have been declining steadily in the past 15 years. What’s causing the decline in Lake Mead? • Extended drought • Overallocation of the system or “structural deficit”
Lake Mead Decline • Arizona takes 320 KAF shortage • Arizona takes 400 KAF shortage reduction • Reductions in hydropower generation • Arizona takes 480 KAF shortage reduction • Uncertainty about what actions Secretary will take to protect Lake Mead • Potential loss of hydropower generation and instability in the electrical grid • Active storage in Mead is less than CA’s allocation (~4.3 MAF) • “Run of River” operations – insufficient storage to meet deliveries to AZ, CA, NV and MX • Dead pool; only 2 MAF in storage 1075’ 1050’ 1025’ 1000 895’
Recent Adaptation Strategies Storage and Recovery 3.4 MAF underground storage in partnership with AWBA Augmentation • Weather modification projects in the Upper Basin • Local and binational desalination Lower Basin Pilot Drought Response Actions MOU • Interstate plan to leave 740 KAF in Mead through 2017 CAP’s share is 345 KAF – completed in 2016 Innovative Conservation (“Pilot System Conservation”) Interstate funding to conserve >75 KAF in the River Conservation research grant program Lower Basin Drought Contingency Plan (“DCP”) Legislation supporting LBDCP recently signed by Governor Ducey
Drought Contingency Plan • DCP is a set of agreements designed to protect the Colorado River system through voluntary reductions and increased conservation. • The risks of Lake Mead falling below critically low reservoir elevations tripled in the past decade, increasing the risks of large scale reductions to Arizona’s Colorado River supply and threatening the health of the river for all users.
Drought Contingency Plan Why Implement DCP? • Arizona has junior priority on the Colorado River, which means its supply is cut first, and the most, during times of shortage. How did we do it? • Collaborative process led by ADWR and CAP When does DCP start? • DCP is expected to be signed by the states, key water users, and federal government in 2019
Drought Contingency Plan Will DCP prevent a shortage? No. You should know: A Colorado River water shortage does not mean that Arizona is in a water crisis. Arizona leads the nation with rigorous water conservation and sustainability laws that protect Arizona water users. The DCP guides new ways for how Arizona cities, agricultural users, industries, tribes and others will share Colorado River water supplies during shortages.
Arizona Implementation Plan Package of agreements to helps those impacted by shortage. Roughly 40 percent of the water we use in AZ comes from the Colorado River. AZDCP impacts Arizona’s junior Colorado River priority holders, mainly CAP water users. The most significant impacts will be felt by CAP Agricultural users and CAP Cities and Tribes holding junior priority CAP water. AZDCP balances water impacts and benefits and spells out ways Arizona will conserve.
KNOWYOURWATER Questions? CentralArizonaProject.com ~ CAGRD.com