Elements of the Work-Centered Analysis (WCA) Framework: • The internal or external customers of the business process • The products (or services) generated by the business process. • The steps in the business process. • The participants in the business process. • The information the business process uses or creates. • The technology the business process uses.
WCA Framework CUSTOMERS PRODUCTS BUSINESS PROCESS PARTICIPANTS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The WCA Framework • The WCA framework implies that although people sometimes speak of computers as systems, the system business professionals should focus on is the system performing the work. • The system performing the work is much broader than the technology. It includes the business processes, the participants, any information used, and any technology used. • The links are two-way, implying that the elements should be in balance. Also, changes in one place may result in changes in other elements.
Applying the WCA • Automated Teller Machines • Wal-Mart Point of Sale • Amazon.com
Citibank ATM’s • ATM = Automated Teller Machine. • Depositors perform common transactions at their convenience. • Citibank implemented 500 machines in the New York metro area in the late 1970’s - “The Citi Never Sleeps”. • Citibank Market share went from 4.5 % to 13 % from 1978 to 1987. • Competition built NYCE.
Walmart POS • Walmart is world’s largest and most profitable retailer. • Walmart culture built on obtaining the most current information about what customers want. • Walmart invetsted $600 million over 5 years in IT. POS (Point of Sale) system avoids overstocking by learning what sells slowly.
Amazon.com: On-line Commerce • Innovations in information technology and telecommunications have led to radical changes in business processes. • What has Amazon.com demonstrated? • How does Amazon.com provide value for customers? • Will on-line bookstores ultimately have a negative effect on city life by wiping out most smaller local bookstores other than those in niche locations such as vacation areas • What are the elements of the WCA Framework?
Amazon.com - A New Way to Shop for Books CUSTOMER Person who purchases books Wholesalers that supply the books Amazon.com’s shipping department
Amazon.com - A New Way to Shop for Books PRODUCT Information about books that might be purchased Information describing each book order Books that are eventually delivered
Amazon.com - A New Way to Shop for Books • BUSINESS PROCESS • Major Steps: • Purchaser logs on to www.amazon.com • Purchaser identifies desired book or gives search criteria • Purchaser looks at book-related information and decides what to order • Purchaser enters order • Amazon.com orders book from wholesaler • Wholesaler sends book to Amazon.com • Shipping department packages order and sends it to the purchaser • Rationale: • Instead of forcing book buyers to go to typical bookstores, permit them to use online access from home or from work.
Amazon.com - A New Way to Shop for Books PARTICIPANTS People interested in purchasing books Order fulfillment department of wholesaler Shipping department of Amazon.com INFORMATION Orders for books Price and other information about each book TECHNOLOGY Personal computer used by purchaser Computers and networks used by Amazon.com for order processing
Competition in the College Bookstore Market Competition in the College Bookstore Market http://booksmart.stanford.edu http://www.vivasmart.com/scripts/textbooks