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PRECIPITATION. CURVATURE EFFECT. Q. Why are cloud droplets larger over the ocean?. COLLISION- COALESCENCE PROCESS. Most collide on forward edge Some collide on backside. Terminal velocity : Almost 10 m/s for largest raindrops. Q. Why can a cumuliform cloud produce

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Precipitation

Q. Why are cloud droplets

larger over the ocean?


Precipitation

COLLISION-

COALESCENCE

PROCESS

Most collide on forward edge

Some collide on backside

Terminal velocity:

Almost 10 m/s for largest raindrops


Precipitation

Q. Why can a cumuliform cloud produce

heavier precipitation than a stratiform cloud?

"Warm" Cloud



Precipitation

Deposition nuclei

Ice forms directly on ice nuclei

Freezing Nuclei

Promote freezing of supercooled droplets

(contact nuclei)


Precipitation

Ice crystals grow at

the expense of water

droplets

Higher saturation vapour pressure


Precipitation

  • Riming causes

  • snow pellets (graupel)

  • supercooled droplets

  • freeze on contact

Snowflakes form

through aggregation



Precipitation

ARTIFICIAL CLOUD SEEDING

Source: Desert Research

Institute, Nevada, USA

Source: North Dakota Cloud Modification Project, USA


Precipitation

Source: North Dakota Cloud Modification Project, USA



Precipitation

18cm diameter

World's

Largest

Hailstone

Aurora, Nebraska

June 22, 2003


Precipitation

I almost

didn't make

it here !


Precipitation

AIR PRESSURE,

FORCES AND WIND



Precipitation

WIND

SMALL-SCALE &

LOCAL SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 10



Precipitation

SONIC

ANEMOMETER

SOUND WAVES

DETERMINEWIND SPEED,

DIRECTION &

TEMPERATURE

Sonic transducers



Precipitation

SNOWDRIFT

http://www.wrds.uwyo.edu/wrds/rmfres/fendrift.html


Precipitation

Effect of

Surface

Roughness

and Instability

on Windspeed


Precipitation

Depth of mixing depends on:

Surface Heating

WIND SPEED

TOPOGRAPHY

SURFACE ELEMENTS










Precipitation

Lake-induced convergence

Also SW Ontario




Precipitation

CHINOOK !

Cooling

At MALR

6°C/km

Warming

At DALR

10 °C/km

Warming

At DALR

10 °C/km

Cooling

At MALR

6°C/km

Cooling

At DALR

10 °C/km

X

X

VANCOUVER

LETHBRIDGE

12°C

8°C

More sensible heat






Precipitation

Ventifacts

Entrained Particle

Exposed section

Buried Portion