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Citing Sources. Chicago Style. Footnotes. Every source of information must be placed in a footnote. This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.

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Citing sources

Citing Sources

Chicago Style


  • Every source of information must be placed in a footnote.

  • This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.

  • The first footnote gives the whole citation, while subsequent footnotes of the same material give an abbreivated version.

Citing sources1
Citing Sources

  • Format for footnotes is single spaced.

  • No extra lines between entries.

  • Long entries are separated by colons.

  • Punctuation counts

Long quotes
Long Quotes

  • When you use a quote that is more than three lines long it must be off-set from your text.

  • It is not put in quotation marks but is indented 5 spaces from each margin.

  • These should be used sparingly and only when you need the exact wording.

Ibid and op cit
Ibid and op. cit.

  • Ibid refers to the exact reference as above.

  • “In the same place. Used in footnotes and bibliographies to refer to the book, chapter, article, or page cited just before.”

  • Op. cit. is when it is a reference prior to the one directly above, and simply means “in the work cited.”

  • It is often confusing to use these terms, so unless you are exactly clear, just use the abbreviated version to ensure that you do not confuse your reader.


  • A footnote is considered a sentence that describes the citation you are providing.

  • It should be a natural sentence, therefore the author’s name is first name first, then last name, followed by a comma and the title of the article, followed by where it can be found, publisher, date, etc.


  • In this case, the author is first, followed by a comma. The title of the article is in quotation marks, followed by another comma and the end quotation marks.

  • The article is found in the journal, Current History.

  • Journal titles, book titles and either underlined or italicized, never both.

  • Following the journal is the month of publication, year and page number.

  • The final thing is a period at the end.


  • The bibliography is a complete listing of all the works cited in the paper.

  • You cannot pad the bibliography by adding works not cited in the footnotes.

  • Just because you read it isn’t good enough, you have to explicitly use it to put in in the bibliography.

  • The bibliography is alphabetized by last name of author to ensure that people can find the source.


  • The punctuation is different in the bibliography.

    • There are periods where there once were commas.

    • The journal articles include the page ranges rather than pages cited.

  • Single spaced

  • Hanging indent

Website for guidelines
Website for guidelines

  • To find specifics on books, journals, newspapers and internet sources consult a style guide.

  • You can find these in book stores or on internet cites.


  • Style guides provide other useful information such as grammar and punctuation.