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LEARNING WITHOUT WORDS Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement Reinforcement

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LEARNING WITHOUT WORDS Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement Reinforcement Mazes and Learning Curves Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records The Vocabulary of Reinforcement Extinction Extinction Versus Inhibition

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slide2

LEARNING WITHOUT WORDS

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

Addendum 5A: Extinction and Superstition

slide3

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide6

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide13

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide16

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide17
Extinction in historical perspective
  • Extinction ala Pavlov: Cortical irradiation of inhibition
  • Extinction as a process distinguished from reinforcement
  • Extinction as active suppression
  • Phenomena taken as evidence for extinction as active suppression
    • Spontaneous recovery
    • Disinhibition
    • Side effects
    • Peak shifts and contrast effects
slide18

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

Addendum 5A: Extinction and Superstition

slide19
Extinction in the context of inhibitory theory
  • What is inhibited by what?
  • What are the units of inhibition and of what is inhibited?
  • Why should inhibition of one response be accompanied by excitation of others?
  • How are the units of excitation related to those of inhibition?
  • If behavior is a biological system, how does inhibition work in other cases, such as vision or hearing?
slide20

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide30

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

slide32

Motivating Variables and Reinforcer Classes

Assessing Reinforcers:

Reinforcer Classes and Reinforcer-Specific Effects

Conditioned or Conditional Reinforcement

Pseudo-Reinforcement

Bribes

Intrinsic Reinforcers and the Hidden Costs of Reward

Addendum 14A: Motivating Events in Escape and Avoidance

slide33

Motivating Variables and Reinforcer Classes

Assessing Reinforcers:

Reinforcer Classes and Reinforcer-Specific Effects

Conditioned or Conditional Reinforcement

Pseudo-Reinforcement

Bribes

Intrinsic Reinforcers and the Hidden Costs of Reward

slide34

Motivating Variables and Reinforcer Classes

Assessing Reinforcers:

Reinforcer Classes and Reinforcer-Specific Effects

Conditioned or Conditional Reinforcement

Pseudo-Reinforcement

Bribes

Intrinsic Reinforcers and the Hidden Costs of Reward

look to the reinforcers
Individual differences in behavior are sometimes products not of different contingencies but rather of the different reinforcers that are effective for different individuals (consider the different reinforcers that maintain therapeutic and scientific and athletic and artistic and political behavior).

We can learn a lot by examining the contingencies, but sometimes it is even more important for us to examine the reinforcers. We do not know enough about the conditions that establish the vast variety of reinforcers that maintain human behavior.

Look to the reinforcers
slide38

Reinforcers as Opportunities for Behavior

The Relativity of Reinforcement

The Analysis of Reinforcement

Strength: Resistance to Change Vs Response Rate

Activation and Coupling

The Acquisition of Behavior

Sensory‑Motor Learning

Addendum: 6A.

Some Methodological and Measurement Issues

Addendum: 6B. Latent Learning

slide39

Reinforcers as Opportunities for Behavior

The Relativity of Reinforcement

The Analysis of Reinforcement

Strength: Resistance to Change Vs Response Rate

Activation and Coupling

The Acquisition of Behavior

Sensory‑Motor Learning

slide43

Once we start thinking as reinforcers in terms of the responses for which they set the occasion, we are thinking about them in terms of their properties as behavior rather than in terms of their properties as parts of the environment.

slide44

Once we start thinking as reinforcers in terms of the responses for which they set the occasion, we are thinking about them in terms of their properties as behavior rather than in terms of their properties as parts of the environment.Reinforcers aren’t just kinds of stimuli.

slide45

Reinforcers as Opportunities for Behavior

The Relativity of Reinforcement

The Analysis of Reinforcement

Strength: Resistance to Change Vs Response Rate

Activation and Coupling

The Acquisition of Behavior

Sensory‑Motor Learning

slide46

Chapter 6: Reinforcers as Opportunities for Behavior

The Relativity of Reinforcement

The Analysis of Reinforcement

Strength: Resistance to Change Vs Response Rate

Activation and Coupling

The Acquisition of Behavior

Sensory‑Motor Learning

Addendum: 6A.

Some Methodological and Measurement Issues

Addendum: 6B. Latent Learning

slide49

Consequences of Responding: Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Mazes and Learning Curves

Experimental Chambers and Cumulative Records

The Vocabulary of Reinforcement

Extinction

Extinction Versus Inhibition

Response‑Reinforcer Contingencies and Reinforcer Deliveries

Side Effects of Extinction

Extinction Versus Free or Noncontingent Reinforcement

Reinforcers as Opportunities for Behavior

The Relativity of Reinforcement

The Analysis of Reinforcement

Strength: Resistance to Change Vs Response Rate

Activation and Coupling

The Acquisition of Behavior

Sensory‑Motor Learning