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Organization of Knowledge (LIS 703). Taverekere (Kanti) Srikantaiah Director and Professor Center For Knowledge Management Dominican University River Forest, IL 60305 Email: srikant@dom.edu. Revised 1/22/08. Information Management is:. Identifying information needs

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organization of knowledge lis 703

Organization of Knowledge(LIS 703)

Taverekere (Kanti) Srikantaiah

Director and Professor

Center For Knowledge Management

Dominican University

River Forest, IL 60305

Email: srikant@dom.edu

Revised 1/22/08

information management is
Information Management is:
  • Identifying information needs
  • Locating information sources
  • Selecting information sources
  • Organizing information
  • Disseminating information

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

s r ranganathan s five laws
S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws
  • Books are for use
  • Every reader his book
  • Every book its reader
  • Save the time of the reader
  • A library is a growing organization

(From Jesse H. Shera. Libraries and the Organization of Information. Hamdon, CT: Archon Books, 1965)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

information context
Information Context

Users

Sources/Tools

Contents

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

information context1
Information Context
  • Information systems have collections and policies. Their effectiveness is based on:
  • Reliability
  • Efficiency
  • Security
  • Quality
  • Etc.
  • Response time
  • Accuracy
  • Through put
  • Relevancy
  • Economy

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

information
Information
  • Categories of Information
    • Are they external or internal?
    • What do contents reflect?
    • What are the available formats?
    • Are there any specific terms and conditions to access?
    • How are the systems regarding speed, accuracy, consistency, and accountability?
    • What about costs?

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

standards
Standards
  • Internal and External Standards
    • Are there any standards?
    • Are those standards internal, external, or both?
    • Do they comply with the stated standards?
    • Who (or unit) has the responsibility in implementation, monitoring and evaluation of standards?

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

defining information needs
Defining Information Needs
  • Users of Information
    • Do they belong to different groups?
    • Who are they?
    • What are their information needs?
    • How would information help?

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographical record
Bibliographical Record
  • Serves users and also information providers
  • Data elements relevant to a document
  • Controlled vocabulary
  • House-keeping aspects

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

level of description 1 0d
Level of Description (1.0D)
  • “Base the choice of a level of description on the purpose of the catalogue or catalogues for which the entry is constructed”
  • First Level of Description (1.0D1)
  • Second Level of Description (1.0D2)
  • Third Level of Description (1.0D3)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide11
T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

Source: Manheimer

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slide12
T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

Source: Manheimer

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slide13
T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

Source: Manheimer

T. Kanti Srikantaiah

chief source of information csoi
Chief Source of Information (CSOI)
  • CSOI
  • Title Page
  • Item; Container/Case
  • Manuscript/Other Sources
  • List Title Page, Cover, Caption, Colophon, Other Sources
  • Type of Material
  • Atlases
  • Other Cartographic

Items

  • Manuscript
  • Published Music

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

chief source of information csoi1
Chief Source of Information (CSOI)
  • Type of Material
  • Sound Recordings
    • Disc
    • Tape (Reel to Reel)
    • Tape Cassette
    • Tape Cartridge
    • Roll
    • Sound Recording on Film
  • CSOI
    • Disc and Label
    • Reel and Label
    • Cassette and Label
    • Cartridge and Label
    • Label
    • Container and Label

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

chief source of information csoi2
Chief Source of Information (CSOI)
  • CSOI
  • Film, Cartridge, Container and Label, Other Sources
  • Items, Labels, Containers
  • Title Screen, Other Internal Sources (Menus/Programs)
  • Type of Material
  • Motion Pictures and Video recordings
  • Graphic Materials
  • Computer Files
  • Three-Dimensional

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

development of catalog codes
Development of Catalog Codes
  • Ad-hoc rules all over
  • Anthony Panizzi -BM (91 rules) 1841
  • Charles Cutter (Rules for Dictionary Catalog) 1876
  • Prussian Instructions (Basis for German Union Catalog) 1898
  • Anglo-American Code (AA Code) 1908
  • 1949 rules for descriptive cataloging in LC
  • ALA Code 1949
  • Lubetzky’s Revisions 1949-1967

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record
Bibliographic Record
  • 1961 Paris principles
  • 1966 international meeting of cataloging experts of IFLA and initiation of ISBD
  • 1977 ISBD’s general eight specific areas: each area divided into a number of elements later fully expanded to cover M, A, MRF, NBM, PM, and S

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

development of catalog codes1
Development of Catalog Codes
  • AACR1 1967
  • AACR2 1978
  • AACR2R 1988
    • with Amendments 2002+
  • The Future ????

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

aacr2r
AACR2R
  • General Rules for Description Chapter 1
  • Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets Chapter 2
  • Cartographic Materials Chapter 3
  • Manuscripts Chapter 4
  • Published Music Chapter 5
  • Sound Recordings Chapter 6

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

aacr2r1
AACR2R
  • Motion Pictures and Video recordings Chapter 7
  • Graphic Materials Chapter 8
  • Electronic Resources Chapter 9
  • Three-Dimensional Artifacts and Realia Chapter 10
  • Microforms Chapter 11
  • Continuing Resources Chapter 12
  • Analysis Chapter 13

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

rules for descriptive cataloging
Rules for Descriptive Cataloging

Appendix A: Capitalization (563-599)

Appendix B: Abbreviations (600-610)

Appendix C: Numerals (611-614)

Appendix D: Glossary (615-624)

Appendix E: Initial Articles

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

rules for descriptive cataloging1
Rules for Descriptive Cataloging

(Print Materials)

REFER:

  • Anglo American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed., revised 1988, 2002.
  • Chapter 1: General Rules for Description
  • Chapter 2: Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

the catalog
The Catalog

Parts of the catalogs

  • Public catalog
  • Shelf list
  • Authority file

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide25
T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

Source: Manheimer

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slide26
T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

Source: Manheimer

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bibliographic record1
Bibliographic Record
  • Call number
  • Main entry
  • Title proper : other title information
  • Statement of responsibility; subsequent statements of responsibility.
  • Edition statement/statement of responsibility relating to the edition

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record2
Bibliographic Record
  • Imprint Place: publisher, date (Place: printer)
  • Physical description, Number of pages, Number of plates: illustration statement; size + accompanying material.
  • Series; number
  • Notes
  • Standard Number (ISBN)
  • Subject heading
  • Added entry

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

authority control
Authority Control
  • Interchangeable with vocabulary control
  • Consistency in description of any element
  • Enhances information retrieval
  • Shows relationships
    • Persons
    • Titles
    • Subjects

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

authority control1
Authority Control
  • Maintain consistency
  • Enhance information retrieval
  • Show relationships: persons, titles, and subjects

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc machine readable cataloging
MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  • 1960's - publisher, printers, editors started experimenting with computers to produce books
  • 1964 - The recording of library of congress bibliographical data in machine readable form
  • 1965 - LC/CLR/ARL sponsored a conference to determine requirements for a machine readable record

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc machine readable cataloging1
MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  • 1966(Nov) to 1968(Jun) - LC distributed 50,000 records for English language monographs on magnetic tape to 16 participating libraries
  • 1968 - The MARC pilot project. Final report on a project sponsored by the Council on Library Resources, Inc (includes description of work and reports of the participating libraries)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc machine readable cataloging2
MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)

1969 - Implementation of MARC distribution service to participating libraries and institutions

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide34
MARC
  • Each USMARC has three elements:
    • Record Structure
    • Content Designation
    • Data Content of the Record

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc record structure
MARC: Record Structure
  • Implementation of ANSI Z39.2
  • Bibliographic Information Interchange on magnetic tape (adopted in 1971)
  • ISO 2709 (1981 & Revisions)
  • Documentation format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on magnetic tape (1973) (international equivalent of ANSI)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc machine readable cataloging3
MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  • MARC I became MARC II
  • MARC was later called LCMARC
  • LCMARC eventually became USMARC
  • MARC 21 (current)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

lc responsibilities
LC Responsibilities

(MARC and standardization are complimentary activities)

  • Make necessary changes to established formats
  • Design new formats collaborating with the library community
  • Compile and distribute MARC documentation
  • Maintain liaison with the ALA (MARBI)
  • Represent the U.S. library community in international MARC activities

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc display sample tags
MARC Display (sample tags)

008 Coded control information

010 LC Control Number

020 ISBN

040 Cataloging Source

043 Geographic Area Code

050 LC Call Number

082 Dewey Call Number

090 Local Call Numbers

100 Main Entry--Personal Name

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc display sample tags1
MARC Display (sample tags)

110 Main Entry--Corporate Name

111 Main Entry--Meeting Name

130 Main Entry--Uniform Title

245 Title Statement

250 Edition Statement

260 Imprint

300 Physical Description

400 Series Statement/Added Entry--Personal Name

410 Series Statement/Added Entry--Corporate Name

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc display sample tags2
MARC Display (sample tags)

440 Series Statement/Added Entry--Title

500 General Note

504 Bibliography Note

505 Contents Note

600 Subject Added Entry--Personal Name

610 Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name

611 Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name

650 Subject Added Entry--Topical Term

651 Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

marc display sample tags3
MARC Display (sample tags)

700 Added Entry--Personal Name

710 Added Entry--Corporate Name

730 Added Entry--Uniform Title

740 Added Entry--Variant Title

800 Series Added Entry--Personal Name

810 Series Added Entry--Corporate Name

811 Series Added Entry--Meeting Name

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

the catalog1
The Catalog
  • Identification of information in a traditional bibliographic record
    • Call numbers
    • Main entry
    • Bibliographic description (areas and elements)
    • Tracing
    • LC control number/others

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

the catalog2
The Catalog
  • What is a catalog?
  • Functions of the catalog
  • Objectives of the catalog
  • Bibliographic record formats and elements (identification and terminology)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

the catalog3
The Catalog

Access points: headings and entries

  • Main entry: personal name, corporate name, title
  • Added entries: personal name, corporate name, title, series, subject
  • Non-traditional access points: classification, standard numbers, other elements
  • The unit record and the complete card set

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

the catalog4
The Catalog

Identification of information in a MARC bibliographic record

  • All of above+
  • Fixed-length data fields (fixed fields)
  • Variable-length data fields (variable fields) and subfields
  • Record directory and data field tags
  • Data field indicators

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

card cataloging rules adequate for electronic processing
Card Cataloging Rules Adequate for Electronic Processing?
  • Rules should serve both manual and on-line
  • AAACR2 rules applicable to computer processing?
  • Bibliographical syntax and complexity

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

computerized record formats
Computerized Record Formats
  • Fixed length field
    • # of characters fixed
    • No computer instruction on ending of field
    • Economical on data storage
    • Easy to code

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

computerized record formats1
Computerized Record Formats
  • Variable length field
    • Length varies within fields and subfields
    • Computerized records operated by separators (delimiters)
    • Content designators
    • Fields and subfields
    • Repeatable fields and subfields
    • Indicators
    • Directory
    • Label (leader)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

oclc marc sgml and html
OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML
  • Traditional mark up deal with physical format
  • Electronic systems have built in procedure for formatting
  • When system software (sometimes hardware) changes data conversion is necessary (time-consuming and costly)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

oclc marc sgml and html1
OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML
  • In descriptive (text) mark up contents of a document is structured not the physical format
  • Document contents (chapter, paragraph, footnote, bibliography) are categorized using codes for effective retrieval to meet different needs

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide51
SGML
  • Standard Generalized Mark Up Language (SGML) is referred to as Metalanguage
  • Developed in 1970 as GML (General Mark Up Language) meets national and international standards (ISO 8879)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide52
SGML
  • Permits description of structured information through syntax (classes of documents) called DTDs (Document Type Definitions) written with specific applications
  • 3 projects: TEI (The Text Encoding Initiative); BFAP (Berkeley Finding Aid Project); and DIAP (Columbia University Digital Image Access Project)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide53
HTML
  • Hypertext Mark Up Language
  • Since 1990: WWW Browsers -- Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer. Etc.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

international exchange of data
International Exchange of Data
  • UNIMARC initiation developed through IFLA (to resolve problems in exchanging data
  • UNIMARC has two conversion programs(1977)
    • To convert from national format to UNIMARC
    • To convert from UNIMARC to national format
  • IFLA’s UBCIM (Universal Bibliographic Control & International MARC Core Program) is responsible for all MARC related program

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

international exchange of data1
International Exchange of Data
  • UBCIM continues to work on standards on books and non-books (ISBD etc.)
  • UNIMARC manual is available in many language
  • UNIMARC also assist in managing and using name authority files

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

non marc iso 2709 formats
Non-MARC/ISO 2709 Formats
  • Issue of history and economics
  • UNISIST reference manual
  • CCF (Common Communication Format)
  • Acceptance of bibliographic entitles (global)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographical record isbn
Bibliographical Record/ISBN
  • ISBN (International Standard Book Number)
  • Unique identification system for each monograph by a specific publisher
  • 1967 Introduced in UK by Whitaker & Sons
  • 1968 Introduced to USA by R.R. Bowker
  • International organization for standardization (ISO TC 46) has responsibility for standardization

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record isbn cont
Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
  • Assigned to printed books, pamphlets
  • Electronic publications
  • Educational/instructional films
  • Videos and transparencies
  • Educational/instructional software
  • Audio books on cassettes or CD or DVD
  • Braille publications
  • Microform publications

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record isbn cont1
Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
  • ISBN is used by publishers, distributors, wholesalers, bookstores and libraries, in 217 countries as ordering systems.
  • To date, the U.S. ISBN Agency has more than 180,000 publishers.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographical record isbn cont
Bibliographical Record/ISBN (cont.)
  • Formerly 10 digits is currently replaced by 13 digits to identify:
    • National, geographic, language or other convenient group
    • Publisher or producer
      • Publishers with existing ISBN-10s will need to convert their ISBNs to ISBN-13s by the addition of a prefix 978 and recalculation of the new check digit.
    • Title identifier
    • Check digit
      • Validates the ISBN-13

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record isbn cont2
Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
  • In the United States, a five-digit add-on-code is used for additional information.
  • In the publishing industry, the code is used for price information.
  • The lead digit of the five-digit add-on-code is a currency identifier: 5 for the U.S. dollar, 6 for the Canadian dollar, 1 for the British pound, 3 for the Australian dollar, 4 for the New Zealand dollar, etc.
  • If publishers do not want to indicate the price add-on should be the code 90000.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record isbn cont3
Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
  • Administered at three levels:
    • ISBN Agency in UK
    • National agencies
    • Publishing houses
  • ISBN Agency website: http://www.isbn.org

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record issn
Bibliographic Record/ISSN
  • Serials are known and cited by title.
  • ISSN is limited to the key title.
  • Only one ISSN for each title and a particular medium (separate ISSNs are assigned to each medium version).
  • If title changes, new ISSN is required.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record issn cont
Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
  • In the U.S., the National Serials Data Program at the Library of Congress has the responsibility to assign and maintain ISSNs for all U.S. serial titles.
  • Application form is required.
  • Assignment of ISSN is free (no charge).
  • ISSN instructions: http://lcweb.loc.gov/issn.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record issn cont1
Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
  • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
    • Product of 1970s
  • ISO 3297/ANSI/ NISO Z 39.9
  • Number appear as two groups of four digits separated by a hyphen

EX: 1234-5678

  • Not assigned by publishers

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

bibliographic record issn cont2
Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
  • Administered by ISSN Network (International Organization) with the UNESCO/UNISIST Program
  • ISSN International Centre located in Paris (Network consists of national and regional centers)
  • Centers have the responsibility to register serials in their countries

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slide67

Source: LC

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slide68
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

Title and 1.1 Title proper

statement of [] 1.2 General material designation

responsibility = 1.3 Parallel title

area : 1.4 Other title information

1.5 Statements of responsibility

/ First statement

; Subsequent statement

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide69
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

2. Edition 2.1 Edition statement

area = 2.2 Parallel edition statement

2.3 Statements of responsibility

relating to the edition

/ First statement

; Subsequent statement

, 2.4 Additional edition statement

2.5 Statements of responsibility

following an additional edition

statement

/ First statement

; Subsequent statement

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide70
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

3. Material (or type)

of publication)

specific area

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide71
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

4. Publication, 4.1 Place of publication, distribution, etc.

distribution, First place

etc., area ; Subsequent place

: 4.2 Name of publisher, distributor, etc.

[] 4.3 Statement of function of publisher,

distributor, etc.

, 4.4 Date of publication, distribution, etc.

( 4.5 Place of manufacturer

: 4.6 Name of manufacturer

,) 4.7 Date of manufacture

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide72
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

5. Physical 5.1 Specific material designation and

description area extent of item

: 5.2 Other physical details

; 5.3 Dimensions of item

+ 5.4 Accompanying material statement

6. Series area 6.1 Title proper of series

Note: A series = 6.2 Parallel title of series

statement is : 6.3 Other title information of series

enclosed by

parentheses.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide73
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

6. Series area 6.4 Statements of responsibility

relating to the series

Note: When there / First statement

are two or more ; Subsequent statement

series statements, , 6.5 International Standard Serial

each is enclosed Number of series

by parentheses. ; 6.6 Numbering within series

. 6.7 Enumeration and/or title of

sub series

= 6.8 Parallel title of sub series

: 6.9 Other title information of sub series

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide74
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

6. Series area 6.10 Statements of responsibility

relating to the sub series

/ First statement

; Subsequent statement

6.11 International Standard Serial

Number of sub series

6.12 Numbering within sub series

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slide75
ISBD

Area Punctuation Element

7. Note area

8. Standard 8.1 Standard number (or alternative)

number (or = 8.2 Key title

alternative) and : 8.3 Terms of availability and/or price

terms of () 8.4 Qualification (in varying positions)

availability area

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main entry
Main Entry
  • Authorship (based on Paris Principle)

The person or corporate body chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work

  • Corporate Authorship

Administrative (21.1B2)

Legal/Governmental Laws etc. (21.32-21.39)

Conference etc. (21.1B1)

Sound Recordings, Films etc. (21.23)

Official Communications--Govt. Etc. (21.4D1)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

main entry1
Main Entry
  • Personal Authorship

Classical Works (Homer, Plato, etc.)

Anonymous Classics

Others

Single Personal Authorship (21.4A)

Shared Responsibility (21.6B)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

main entry2
Main Entry
  • Others
    • Mixed Responsibility
      • Adapter (21.10)
      • Artist/Illus (21.11A)
      • Revised, Enlarged, Updated, etc. (21.12A)
      • Commentator (21.13B)
      • Text/Comm. By a Different Person (21.13C)
      • Translator (21.14A)
      • Biographer/Critic (21.15A)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

classification
Classification
  • Organize collections/knowledge according to some system
  • Provide a systematic arrangement -- a formal and orderly access to collections
  • Bring related items together -- leading users to identify and locate

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

criteria
Criteria
  • Inclusive as well as comprehensive
  • Systematic
  • Flexible and expandable
  • Clear terminology for users and classifiers

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

systems
Systems
  • Enumerative (based on collections)
  • Hierarchical (deductive/philosophical)
  • Synthetic (generalized rules/facet approach

(Notation can be pure or mixed)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

some examples
Some Examples
  • Dewey’s Decimal Classification

(Melvil Dewey 1851-1931; Amherst College)

  • Cutter’s Expansive Classification

(Charles Ammi Cutter 1837-1903; Boston Athenaeum)

  • Brown’s Subject Classification

(James Duff Brown 1864-1914)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

some examples cont
Some Examples (cont.)
  • Bliss’s Bibliographic Classification

(Henry Evelyn Bliss 1870-1955)

  • Ranganathan’s Colon Classification

(S. R. Ranganathan 1892-1972)

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

some others
Some Others
  • Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)

FID Managed

  • National Library of Medical Classification

NLM Managed

  • A Classification Scheme for Law Books

Adaptation of K of LCC

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

some others1
Some Others
  • A Classification Scheme for Physics Electrotechnology, computers and control

Inspec Managed

  • The London Classification of Business Studies
  • A Classification of Library and Information Science

CRG Group

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

four major classification schemes
Four Major Classification Schemes
  • Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
    • The scheme of classification drawn up by Herbert Putnam in 1897. Although based in some respects on the Dewey Decimal Classification and Cutter’s expansive schemes, it does not conform to theoretical rules for classification. It was quite explicitly compiled to meet the needs of the library’s huge collection of books and is too detailed and complex to use in small libraries. It has however, been adopted by research and university libraries throughout the world.

Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

four major classification schemes1
Four Major Classification Schemes
  • Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
    • Devised by Melvil Dewey and first published in 1876, since when it has been revised nineteen times. Knowledge is divided into the ten main classes, each designated by a numeral form zero to nine, which can be then subdivided by the addition of two numerals before a decimal point and further numerals after it. It has a relative index which shows the relation of each subject that is indexed to a larger subject (or class division). The published schedules have been extended and modified in successive editions.

Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

four major classification schemes2
Four Major Classification Schemes
  • Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
    • Essentially an elaborate expansion of the Decimal Classification of Melvil Dewey, using various symbols in addition to Arabic numerals to create long and expressive notations for particular documents. This makes it particularly appropriate for use in specialist libraries and collections, and its adoption by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has ensured its worldwide use. It was developed by the Insitut Internationale de Bibliographie, now FID, under the direction of Paul Otet and Henri la Fontaine.

Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.

T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

slide89

Four Major Classification Schemes

  • Colon Classification (CC)
    • Designed by S.R. Ranganathan, it is based on the classficiation of any subject by its uses and relations, which are indicated by numbers divided by a colon ’:’. It was the first example of an analytical-synthetic classification, in which the subject field is first analyzed into facets, and class numbers are provided for most topics but are constructed combining the classes of the various unit schedules of which the scheme consists. It has proved particularly popular in India and has inspired classification researchers in many parts of the world.

Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.

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dewey summaries
Dewey Summaries

First Summary

The Ten Main Classes

000 Generalities

100 Philosophy & psychology

200 Religion

300 Social sciences

400 Language

500 Natural sciences & mathematics

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dewey summaries1
Dewey Summaries

600 Technology (Applied sciences)

700 The arts - Fine and decorative arts

800 Literature & rhetoric

900 Geography & history

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subject cataloging
Subject Cataloging

Purpose:

  • Provide access by subject to all material
  • Bring together material of same subject
  • Show relationships among subjects
  • Identify specific document(s) through subject(s)
  • Retrieve specific document(s) using subject approach
  • Search for information on a given subject

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subject access
Subject Access
  • Classifying Knowledge- on the teachings of Callimachus, Plato, Aristotle, and Bacon
  • ALA List of Subject Headings in 1885
  • Cutter’s Rules for Dictionary Catalog revised in 1905
  • In 1914, Library of Congress first edition of Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogues of the Library of Congress
  • In 1975, title changes to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
  • In 1988, LC included online version
  • In 1923, Sears List of Subject Headings (Sears) was introduced to small libraries

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subject access to information
Subject Access to Information
  • Design and Development of Subject Headings
    • Main Headings and Subdivisions
    • Cross References
    • Special Types

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subject access to information1
Subject Access to Information
  • Two Main Viewpoints:
    • Natural Language VS. Controlled Vocabulary
  • Controlled Vocabulary Systems
    • Evolution
    • Alphabetic VS. Classified Arrangement
    • Current Scenario
      • Library of Congress Subject Headings
      • Sears List of Subject Headings
      • Medical Subject Headings
      • Others

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comparison of natural and controlled language
Comparison of Natural and Controlled Language

Both natural and controlled language systems offer the same powerful search aids- truncation, word proximity, etc.

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comparison of natural and controlled language cont
Comparison of Natural and Controlled Language (cont.)

Both natural and controlled language systems offer the same powerful search aids- truncation, word proximity, etc.

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controlled vocabularies
Controlled Vocabularies
  • Subject Approach
    • Point out what a library/information source or database has on a particular subject
    • Point out what a library/information source or database has on a related subjects
  • Two popular pre-coordinated subject heading lists in the US:
    • The Library of Congress
    • Sears List of Subject Headings

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controlled vocabularies1
Controlled Vocabularies
  • Other lists are in specific fields
    • Ex: MESH (Medical Subject Heading List)
  • Approach

Topical or Form Headings

    • Single Noun: Cats, Economics, Poetry
    • Phrases: Adjectuval--Agricultural credit, English literature, Library science, teenage automobile drivers; Prepositional--Children in motion pictures, Federal aid to youth services, Costume in art; Conjunctive--Emigration and immigration, Open and closed shelves, Children’s encyclopedias and dictionaries, bolts and nuts; Inverted--Chemistry, Organic, Maps, Statistical, Knowledge, Sociology of; Free Floating--Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-, In fiction, drama, poetry, etc.

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library of congress subject headings
Library of Congress Subject Headings
  • 263,000 authority records
    • 19,200 personal
    • 4,500 corporate
    • 12 meeting or conference
    • 480 uniform title
    • 197,000 topical
    • 42,000 geographical

Source: Library of Congress

Subject Headings, 30th Edition, 2007

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lcsh headings
LCSH Headings
  • One word
  • Two words
  • More than two words
  • Class numbers (36% of headings followed by #S)
  • Scope notes

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subdivisions
Subdivisions
  • Topical Subdivision
  • Form Subdivision
  • Chronological Subdivision
  • Geographical Subdivision
  • Free-Floating Subdivision
  • Pattern Headings

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subdivisions contd
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Order of Subdivision
    • Main Heading--Topical Subdivision--Geographic Subdivision--Chronological Subdivision--Form Division

France--Intellectual Life--20th Century--Historiography

Teachers--Training of--United States--Bibliography

Farm Buildings--Specifications--Maryland--Montgomery County

Visual Aids--Collectors and Collecting--Standards--Japan

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subdivisions contd1
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Form Subdivisions:
    • Engineering-examinations, questions, etc.
    • Gardens--Pictorial Works
    • Poetry
    • Engineering--Dictionaries
  • Topical Subdivisions:
    • Wages--Minimum Wage
    • Engineering--Research
    • Agriculture--Accounting

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subdivisions contd2
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Period (Chronology)

France--History--Louis XIV, 163-1715

United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865

Greece--History--1453-1821

English Language--Grammar--1950-

Sculpture, Ancient

Great Britain--History--Wars of the Roses, 1455-1485

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subdivisions contd3
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Geographic

Sports--England

Education, Elementary--United States

Music--Africa

Education--Demographic Aspects--Japan

Art--Great Britain

Charities--Italy--Florence

Wool Industry--Government Policy--Italy--Naples

Cities and Towns--India--Bangalore

Agriculture--Florida

Music--Scotland

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subdivisions contd4
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Free Floating:
    • General

--Abstracts

--Cost Effectiveness

--Library Resources

--Periodicals--Indexes

--Software

--Study and Teaching

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subdivisions contd5
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Free Floating (contd):
    • Specific Type

Actors--Political Activity

Asian Americans--Race Identity

Illinois--Governors--Election

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subdivisions contd6
Subdivisions (contd)
  • Free Floating (contd):
    • Control by Pattern Headings

Colonies Great Britain--Colonies

Chemical Copper

Insulin

Indians Indians of North America

Military Services United States--Armed Forces

Musical Compositions Operas

Sacred Works Bible

Wars World War, 1939-1945

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lcsh headings1
LCSH Headings
  • References
    • Equivalence relationships
    • Hierarchical relationships
    • Associate relationships
    • General references

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cross references
Cross References
  • Equivalence Relationship

English Hymns use Hymns, English

Unconventional Warfare use Guerilla Warfare

Illiteracy use Literacy

Hymns, English UF English Hymns

Literacy UF Illiteracy

  • Hierarchical Relationship

Poetry BT Literature

NT Children’s Poetry

Classical Poetry

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cross references1
Cross References
  • Associative Relationship

Aliens RT Citizenship

Immigrants

Naturalization

Physicians RT Medicine

Similarly,

Medicine RT Physicians

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cross references2
Cross References
  • General references

Atlases SA Subdivision maps under

names of countries, cities etc.,

and under topics

Cranberries --Diseases and Pets

SA Names of pests,

e.g. Cranberry Root-worm

Court of Last Resort SA Names of

individual supreme courts

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outline of subconcepts of subject analysis
Outline of Subconcepts of Subject Analysis
  • Identify concepts and determine what is the purpose of the information package (e.g., who the intended users are) in the following:
    • Title and subtitle.
    • Table of contents or equivalent.
    • Preface and/or introduction (etc.).
    • Illustrations and their captions.
  • Identify names used as subject concepts.
  • Identify role(s) of any geographic name(s) present.
  • Identify chronological elements.
  • Identify form of the item being analyzed.
  • Construct a sentence giving analysis of what this information package is about.
    • Identify index terms from the sentence to be searched in the controlled vocabulary.
    • Translate the terms into specific headings from the controlled vocabulary list.
  • Construct the hierarchy (discipline/subdiscipline/concept/topic, etc.) into which the “aboutness” falls.
    • Convert the hierarchy into a classification notation.

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Source: Taylor

mechanization of bibliography
Mechanization of Bibliography
  • Automation first entered in 1870’s with the introduction of typewriters (Lot of discussion)
  • In 1890’s, the documentation Movement in Europe
  • Development of Professional Organizations and Scientific Research
  • UDC was discussed in 1892 conference in Brussels (organized by Otlet and LaFontaine)
  • In 1937, the American Documentation Institute was formed. In 1968 changed its name to ASIS. In 2000 became ASIS & T

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mechanization of bibliography1
Mechanization of Bibliography
  • In 1938, FID was established
  • In 1928, Eastman Kodak’s technological advance in microfilm
  • World War II- Information Explosion
  • In 1945, Vannevar Bush opened a new era (associative index)
  • In the 1950 and 1960’s many mechanization attempts:
    • Creation of MARC format at LC
    • OCLC (online college library center)
    • RLIN (research libraries network) in 1977

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how does system design relate to the organization or information
How does system design relate to the organization or information?
  • System design holds together the metadata that serve as surrogates for the information package within a domain.
  • Before computerization, the people who created surrogate records were the same people who organized them, so system design was not a separate process.
    • Panizzi’s rules proposed the contents of surrogate records and also the standards for cataloging them.
    • Cutter’s rules included an emphasis on collocation (logical juxtaposition of records) and a design for the card catalog and filing.
    • Each edition of ALA filing rules has assumed that the system design is based on a card catalog.

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system designs differ so users must learn each system by asking
System designs differ, so users must learn each system by asking:
  • How does the system accept queries? Commands? Forms? Menus? Command structure?
  • Can one search by Author? Title? Subject? Form/genre? Keywords? Combinations? Exact word-for-word matches?
  • Are Boolean searches allowed? Order of operations? Default AND or OR? How are search results displayed? In what order?
  • Are “guides” presented before actual listings of records? How do they divide up (organize) responses? How do you sift through a multiscreen response?
  • What kinds of information are included in records in the database? Is coded data translated in a meaningful way?
  • Is a record displayed in full or briefly, and what is included at each level of detail?

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system designs differ so users must learn each system by asking1
System designs differ, so users must learn each system by asking:
  • Do records contain subject data in the form of controlled vocabulary?
  • Does the system support controlled vocabulary by displaying relationships between subjects? (Broader, narrower, and related terms)
  • How are author searches interpreted by the system- exact match, near match, keyword?
  • Which keys on keywords have special functions in the system? (Ctrl, Alt)
  • How are hyphens, punctuation, symbols treated? Normalization algorithms?
  • Does the system “remember” where the user is in a search? Navigation?

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filing principles
Filing Principles

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From different sources

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filing principles cont
Filing Principles (Cont.)

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From different sources

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filing principles cont1
Filing Principles (Cont.)

From different sources

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filing principles cont2
Filing Principles (Cont.)

Examples of Basic ALA Rules

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Source: ALA Filing Rules

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filing principles cont3
Filing Principles (Cont.)

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Source: ALA Filing Rules

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filing principles cont4
Filing Principles (Cont.)

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Source: ALA Filing Rules

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filing principles cont5
Filing Principles (Cont.)

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Source: ALA Filing Rules

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filing principles cont6
Filing Principles (Cont.)

Source: ALA Filing Rules

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filing principles cont7
Filing Principles (Cont.)

Source: ALA Filing Rules

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