Federalism SS Core-9 November 19, 2012 Learning Target: Students will understand the reasons for creating a federal system and will be able to explain how it impacts the powers of federal and state governments
What is Federalism? • Federalism is… • A political system in which political power is divided between the national (federal) and state and local governments
The Federal Government has expressed powers specifically granted in the Constitution (tax, regulate commerce, declare war, etc.) The U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land (National Supremacy Clause) The 10th Amendment reserves powers to the states (ex: education, law enforcement, etc.) Federalism and the Constitution The Federal Government has implied powers from the necessary & proper clause or “elastic clause” (ex: create a national bank)
Characteristics of American Federalism Federal, state, & local government share power 10th Amen. – powers reserved to the states National government is supreme FEDERALISM Limited gov’t – states check power of national government Federal gov’t has expressed powers (declare war) Federal Gov’t has implied powers (“elastic” clause)
Dual Federalism (1789-1932) Federal and state governments are co-equals, each sovereign Narrow interpretation of the Constitution Federal government only has jurisdiction if clear expressed in the Constitution (ex: coin money, foreign affairs) State have greater role and powers (ex: public education, race relations)
Dual Federalism How is Dual Federalism similar to a layer cake?
Cooperative Federalism (1933-Present) National government clearly supreme over the states Wide interpretation of the “necessary and proper clause” (Article I, Sect. 8 of the Constitution, also known as the “elastic clause.”) Federal government intervenes or assists in some areas traditionally left to the states (ex: education, health care, civil rights) Began with the New Deal in the 1930s