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ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS Edward D. French, Ph.D. Department of Pharmacology University of Arizona College of Medicine PowerPoint Presentation
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ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS Edward D. French, Ph.D. Department of Pharmacology University of Arizona College of Medicine. SIMPLISTIC VIEW OF SEIZURES. All that separates a normal brain from an epileptic seizure is the control of excitation.

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slide1

ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS

Edward D. French, Ph.D.

Department of Pharmacology

University of Arizona

College of Medicine

slide4

SIMPLISTIC VIEW OF SEIZURES

All that separates a normal brain from an epileptic seizure is the control of excitation.

The normal neuronal network is kept in balance between fast, inherently dangerous, excitatory events and inhibitory suppression of those events.

general principles of aeds sites of action
General Principles of AEDs Sites of Action
  • Decrease Na+ channel-mediated excessive depolarization that propagates excitability within and without a brain region.
  • Increase neuronal inhibition.
  • Reduce neuronal excitation evoked by an excitatory amino acid.
  • Reduce activity of T-type (low-threshold) calcium channels.
sodium channels as a site of action for some aeds
Sodium Channels As ASite of Action for Some AEDs
  • Action potentials from increased sodium conductance: open-inactivated-closed-open
    • with seizure activity: sustained depolarization
  • AEDs that act on sodium channels show:
    • voltage dependence (membrane potential more positive)
    • use dependence (frequency of action potentials increased)
increasing neuronal inhibition the gaba connection
Increasing Neuronal Inhibition:The GABA Connection
  • Increasing GABA-mediated chloride conductance, resulting in an increase inside the neuron of a negatively charged ion.
  • Increasing GABA synthesis and release
  • Attenuating GABA uptake and metabolism
  • Result: greater hyperpolarization of neuronal membrane potential
gaba receptors
GABA Receptors
  • GABA receptors--, ,  subunit assemblies
  • GABA-A and GABA-B receptors
    • GABA-A: chloride ionophore
    • GABA-B: G-protein coupled potassium channel: how would potassium efflux affect excitability?
  • Receptor composition may differ in different brain regions.
  • GABA-A receptor has binding sites for GABA, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, ethanol and picrotoxin.
gaba a receptor ionophore
GABA-A Receptor Ionophore
  • Benzodiazepines bind to a BZD binding site on the -subunit of the GABA-ionophore.
  • BZD’s increase the frequency of GABA-mediated channel openings, but not mean open time.
  • Barbiturates affect GABA-A receptors irrespective of subunit composition.
  • BARBS increase channel mean open times but not open frequency.
the glutamate connection
The Glutamate Connection
  • Glutamate receptors:
    • AMPA, Kainate & NMDA receptor subtypes: ion-channel complexes
    • Metabotropic: second messenger coupled
  • NMDA ionophore--voltage/use dependent, modulated by glycine (non-strychnine), polyamines, & phencyclidine.
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THE IDEAL ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUG

  • Known mechanism of action
  • Fully effective in monotherapy in a variety of seizure types without tolerance
  • No serious side effects
  • No dose-related neurotoxicity within the therapeutic range
  • High therapeutic index
  • Non-teratogenic
  • No long-term adverse tissue effects or cognitive impairment
  • Favorable/predictable pharmacokinetics without drug interactions
  • Low cost