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Ethics in the Marketplace

Ethics in the Marketplace

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Ethics in the Marketplace

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  1. Ethics in the Marketplace 213.32 Week 2 Winter 2013 Providence University College

  2. What To Start With • golden rule in the Bible • self-driving car

  3. Self-Driving Cars • Motor Trend magazine • http://www.motortrend.com/features/auto_news/2012/1301_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_driving/ • The Economist • http://www.economist.com/news/business/21564821-carmakers-are-starting-take-autonomous-vehicles-seriously-other-businesses-should-too • Wikipedia • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car • legislation • http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/wiki/index.php/Automated_Driving:_Legislative_and_Regulatory_Action

  4. Self-Driving Cars • “Creating an ethical algorithm for autonomous motor vehicles in emergency situations”

  5. Self-Driving Cars • What is an algorithm? • http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Algorithm.html • Big Bang Theory • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0xgjUhEG3U

  6. Self-Driving Cars • What is an emergency situation? • examples • a car on a busy street • a kid, a ball, & a row of parked cars • a truck on a slippery mountain road • an oncoming car, a cliff • definition/characterization • ?

  7. Self-Driving Cars • How do humans behave in emergency driving situations? • Do drivers make ethical decisions in these situations? • Do we make ethical judgments… • about that behaviour? • about those decisions? • Are those judgments reasonable? • yes/no? • more/less?

  8. Self-Driving Cars • How do [can] cars behave in emergency driving situations? • Can cars make ethical decisions in these situations? • Do we make ethical judgments… • about that behaviour? • about those decisions? • Are those judgments reasonable? • yes/no? • more/less?

  9. Self-Driving Cars • What precedents do we have to work from? • rules of the road • http://find-a-driving-school.ca/drivers-handbooks/manitoba-drivers-handbook-online/ 4-Way Stop Signs • non-autonomous machines • saws • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/machineguarding/saws/tablesaws.html • http://www.sawstop.com/how-it-works/videos/ • drones in “war” zones • rules of engagement

  10. Self-Driving Cars • Who else has thought about this? • a number of people have • http://commonsenseatheism.com/?p=14882 • 2 starter books • Wallach, Wendell & Allen, Colin. 2010. Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong. • Anderson, Michael, Leigh Anderson, Susan (eds.) 2011. Machine Ethics. • “AMA: Artificial Moral Agents”

  11. Self-Driving Cars • What do we actually care about here? • That self-driving cars • …are at least as safe as cars driven by the average human driver? • …are at least as safe as the best human driver? • …be accident-free? • That accidents decrease? • That deaths from driving decrease?

  12. Self-Driving Cars • What do we actually care about here? • That self-driving cars make the decisions we would make—and execute the behaviours that we would execute—if we were driving in that situation? • That they make ethical decisions the same way we make ethical decisions?

  13. Self-Driving Cars • What do we actually care about here? • That we prevent self-driving cars from driving on our roads? • That we feel safe sharing the road with self-driving cars? • That we don’t surrender to our robot overlords without a fight?

  14. Self-Driving Cars • Hmmm…

  15. Golden Rule in the Bible • Love your neighbor as yourself. • Lev 19:18 & Mk 12:13 • Whatever you desire others to do to you, do to them. • Matt 7:12 & Luke 6:31 What do you notice?

  16. Golden Rule in the Bible • what I notice • Leviticus • love the alien as your self? • Mark • after the “contest”, an honest question

  17. what I notice Matthew in Sermon on the Mount Beatitudes sacrificial love overwhelming generosity of God an appropriate response from us Luke in the Sermon on the Plain Beatitudes love your enemies turn the cheek give them your clothing lend to them without expecting to get anything back God is overwhelmingly generous we should be just like Him Golden Rule in the Bible

  18. Golden Rule in the Bible • what I notice • not • all the same • always a “primary rule” • a “contract” between people

  19. Golden Rule in the Bible • what I conclude • overwhelming generosity • much more than the “golden rule”

  20. body of the chapter for quiz continuing in ch 1 for discussion cases Made in the USA The A7D Affair if we have time essays Solomon Luban et al. “The Social Responsibility Business Is To Increase Its Profits” Friedman read by Fri on quiz think of 1 thing you want to say For Fri

  21. Fri

  22. Quiz

  23. Friedman “The Social Responsibility… • New York Times Magazine • 1970 • Milton Friedman • 1912 – 2006 • Nobel Prize in Economics • Chicago School of Economics • "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century…possibly of all of it” • The Economist, obituary, 2006 • 1 thing you want to say

  24. Friedman “The Social Responsibility… • What’s the basic case? • Why is it attractive? • Why don’t business people say it? • What objections have been made? • How would you respond?

  25. Cases • Made in the USA • The A7D Affair what you noticed what I noticed

  26. Shaw & Berry • If we have a bit of time

  27. Articles • Solomon • It’s Good Business • Luban et al. • Moral Responsibility in the Age of Bureaucracy

  28. Solomon  amorality • Legal regulation is the natural response…to the practice of amorality....regulation is the price business pays for bad ethical strategy.... • pg 37 • …the whole point of business ethics is to define and defend the basic goals of prosperity, freedom, fairness, and individual dignity. • pg 37

  29. Solomon  ethical thinking • Ethical thinking is ultimately no more than considering oneself and one’s company as citizens of the business community and of the larger society; with some concern for the well-being of others and—the mirror image of this—respect for oneself and one’s character. • pg 44

  30. Solomon  business ethics • Business ethics is nothing less than the full awareness of what one is doing, its consequences and complications....It is being aware of: • the need for compliance.... • the contributions business can make to society.... • the consequences of business activity.... • pg 38

  31. Solomon  scum • In any system based on trust, a few deceivers will prosper. • pg 40 • Strategic ethics begins by emphasizing business as a practice with strict rules and expectations that acceptable players honor implicitly—or they are out of the game. • pg 41

  32. Solomon  trapped • Most people in business who do wrong do so not because they are wicked but because they think they are trapped… • pg 42 • What sort of person would do such a thing? • pg 41 • A virtue sustains and improves a practice. A virtue in business is an ethical trait that makes business in general possible. • pg 41

  33. Articles • Solomon • It’s Good Business • Luban et al. • Moral Responsibility in the Age of Bureaucracy

  34. Luban et al. sanctions • Riesman • tradition-directed • inner-directed • other-directed • pg 45-46 shame guilt anxiety

  35. Luban et al. fragmentation • Conot Hitler…enunciated an off-hand, extra-legal decree.... Brandt…ordered the “scientific” implementation of the program.... The directors and personnel of institutions rationalized that…they were just filling out questionnaires.... The personnel at the end of the line [said that they] …had no power of decision… • pg 46

  36. Luban et al. fragmentation • Theis: Dalkon Shield • pg 47 project manager quality control department medical department

  37. Luban et al. fragmentation • …we remain convinced that fragmented knowledge is a genuine phenomenon that we cannot simply dismiss as a lame excuse • pg 47

  38. Luban et al. fragmentation • Virtually every approach to normative ethics…[assumes] four knowledge conditions are satisfied….[T]he decisionmaker recognizes that he or she… • …has come to a fork in the road • …must make the choice in a fairly short, distinct period of time • …confronts a small number of well-defined options • …has the information needed to make the decision ….The failure of these knowledge conditions is created or maintained by organizational structure. • pg 48-49

  39. Luban et al. culpable • Is it possible to formulate satisfactory principles of individual responsibility when any or all of the four knowledge conditions presupposed by standard moral theories fail? • pg 49

  40. Luban et al. obligations • ignorance can be culpable • obligations of • investigation • communication • protection • prevention • precaution • pg 50-51 management

  41. For Next Fri • ch 2 • read 1st half • once through • 51-91 • read 3 cases • carefully • come with thoughts and ideas • skim the 2 essays • Maxwell • The Mission of Business 1 hr max 1 hr 15 min