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CRIME, DISORDER AND INEQUALITY. Anthony Bottoms Sheffield Fairness Commission 26 June 2012. ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION IN SHEFFIELD, 2000. OFFENDER RESIDENCES IN SHEFFIELD, SEPT 2004 – AUG 2006 (in quintiles, highest rate darkest). RECORDED VICTIMISATIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL BURGLARY IN SHEFFIELD,

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crime disorder and inequality

CRIME, DISORDER AND INEQUALITY

Anthony Bottoms

Sheffield Fairness Commission

26 June 2012

slide4

RECORDED VICTIMISATIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL BURGLARY IN SHEFFIELD,

SEPT 2004 – AUG 2006

(in quintiles, highest rate darkest)

explaining offender residential patterns
Explaining Offender Residential Patterns

Source: Breaking Rules, Fig. 5.6, p. 238

explaining offence locations
Explaining Offence Locations

Source: Breaking Rules, Fig. 5.2, p. 220

collective efficacy
COLLECTIVE EFFICACY

Definition: ‘The institutional ability to achieve what a group or community collectively wishes to achieve’

In criminological research, measured by:

  • The willingness of residents to intervene for the common good in defined situations (e.g. children spray-painting graffiti); and
  • The existence or otherwise of conditions of cohesion and mutual trust among neighbours.
the interaction between propensity and environment
The Interaction between Propensity and Environment

Source: Breaking Rules, Fig. 3.11, p. 156

martin innes s signal crimes perspective
Martin Innes’s“Signal Crimes Perspective”
  • Signal Crimes
  • Signal Disorders
  • Control Signals

Source: Innes (2004)

Central proposition: Some crime and disorder incidents matter more than others to people in terms of shaping their risk perceptions

Detailed concepts:

national reassurance policing project top risk signals in trial wards

National Reassurance Policing Project:Top ‘Risk Signals’ in Trial Wards

Source: University of Surrey

* Crime or disorder signals are listed in descending order of perceived importance in each area.

study of satisfaction with neighbourhood safety in four sub areas in sheffield
Study of ‘Satisfaction with Neighbourhood Safety’ in Four Sub-Areas in Sheffield

Key variables:

  • Area not seen as declining
  • High score on ‘community works together’ scale
  • Recently seen PC on foot
  • Knows of local crime prevention programme
  • Quality of local services scale

Source: Bottoms and Wilson (2007) Table 4.11, p. 80

references
REFERENCES

Bottoms, A. E. (2012) ‘Developing Socio-Spatial Criminology’ in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 5th ed., Oxford University Press.

Bottoms, A. E. and Wilson, A. (2007) ‘Civil Renewal, Control Signals and Neighbourhood Safety’ in T. Brannan, P. John and G. Slater (eds) Re-energising Citizenship: Strategies for Civil Renewal, Palgrave Macmillan.

Innes, M. (2004) ‘Signal Crimes and Signal Disorders: notes on deviance as communicative action’, British Journal of Sociology, 55, 335-355.

Wikström, P-O, Oberwittler, D., Treiber, K. and Hardie, B. (2012) Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People’s Urban Crime, Oxford University Press.