FOREST ECOLOGY
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FOREST ECOLOGY. DELAWARE HAS 355,00 ACRES OF FORESTED LAND!. Approx. 5,000 acres of timber are harvested annually. Delaware’s forest products industries provide an excess of 3,700 jobs and and generate an estimated annual wage of $98,000,000. # 34 Who Works in this Forest? .

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Delaware has 355 00 acres of forested land l.jpg
DELAWARE HAS 355,00 ACRES OF FORESTED LAND!

  • Approx. 5,000 acres of timber are harvested annually.

  • Delaware’s forest products industries provide an excess of 3,700 jobs and and generate an estimated annual wage of $98,000,000.

# 34 Who Works in this Forest?


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Delaware’s three state forests-

  • total over 15,000 acres.

  • provide Delawareans the opportunity for hiking, hunting, fishing, bicycling, and horseback riding.

  • are sustainably managed for wildlife habitat, wood products, watershed protection, education, and recreation.

# 32 A Forest of Many Uses


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WE ALL NEED TREES

  • OXYGEN

  • CLEAN WATER

  • PRODUCTS

  • FOOD

  • HABITAT

  • ASTETIC SURROUNDINGS

  • RECREATION

  • A BETTER WELL BEING

  • COOLER ENVIRONMENT

# 13 We All Need Trees & # 15 A Few of My Favorite Things


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What is a forest ?

A forest is a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that cover a considerable area that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself.


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Forest Ecology

Forest Ecology is the study of the complex interactions between the LIVING and NONLIVING elements of a forest ecosystem.

# 48 Field, Forest and Streams


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Living (biotic) Components of the Forest Ecosystem

Producers (all green plants, trees, shrubs along with some

bacteria , also known as an autotrophs)

Consumers (organisms that eat plants and animals also

known as herbivores and carnivores)

Decomposers (bacteria, fungi, insects, or other organisms

that break down organic material)


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Nonliving (abiotic) Components of the Forest Ecosystem Ecosystem

Soil

Water

Climate

Sunlight

Slope of land


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There are over 346 species of wildlife living in Delaware of which 273 are forest dependent.

# 9 Plant Diversity & #22 Trees as Habitats


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Healthy forests provide quality habitat for wildlife which 273 are forest dependent.

flying squirrel

box turtle

screech owl

spotted turtle

spotted salamander


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Delmarva Bays which 273 are forest dependent.Blackbird State Forest contains the highest concentration of Delmarva Bays in Delaware.–These freshwater wetlands are natural depressions that are home to many species of animals and plants. Many theories exist to the origin of these depressions, including “whale wallows” formed when Delaware was under the sea. Current theories now include prehistoric meteor showers, retreating glaciers, and wind patterns.


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The transfer of energy from sun to producer to primary consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer can be shown in a FOOD CHAIN.


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Energy pyramids show consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer can be shown in a

  • That the amount of available energy decreases down the food chain

  • It takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumers

  • It takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers


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Food Webs consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer can be shown in a



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# 23 The Fallen Log, # 24 Nature’s Recyclers & #26 Dynamic Duos


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COMPETITION threat to a natural setting.

  • All trees compete for the same basic requirement of life – light, water, essential elements, oxygen, and other necessities.

  • The limiting factor in a forest ecosystem is SUNLIGHT.

#27 Every Tree for Itself & #41 How Plants Grow


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Symbiosis threat to a natural setting.literally means the living together of two dissimilar organisms, where one or the other, or both are affected.

Usually involves supply of

food

protection

cleaning

transportation or

all of the above


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Mutualism is any relationship between two species of organisms that benefits both species.


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Commensalism is a relationship between two species where one species derives a benefit from the relationship and the second species is unaffected by it.


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Parasitism is a relationship between two species where one species benefits and the other is injured.

Plants are parasitized by viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and a few other plants.


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THE ONLY THING CONSTANT ABOUT FOREST ECOSYSTEMS— species benefits and the other is injured.THEY NEVER STOP CHANGING!

  • Natural changes:

    fire, storms, drought, flood, death and disease

  • Man-made changes:

    harvesting, farming, trails, development, and recreation

# 30 Three Cheers for Trees & # 81Living with Fire


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Allelopathy involves a plant's secretion of biochemical materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.


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SUCESSION materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.

  • Changes or disturbances spark the process called succession, the gradual change in plants and animal communities over time.

    • Primary succession occurs in an area that has no true soil. Pioneer species are the first plants to grow at these barren sites.

    • Secondary succession occurs on landscapes where the natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil remains intact.

# 80 Nothing Succeeds like Succession


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Activity #80 materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.


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What’s your tolerance? materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.

  • Tree species that first colonize an area are usually shade-intolerant species and must have full sunlight to do well.

    (pines, black locust, black cherry, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, blackgum, sassafrass, and sumac)

  • Once they have developed some sun coverage the shade-tolerant species will begin to grow and eventually take over the canopy.

    (oaks, hickories, and American beech)


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These trees normally are not the first to colonize open areas. Instead, they grow up into an existing canopy.

Usually, these trees are found in the “climax community.”

These trees tend to:

- live a long time

- grow slowly

- have heavier seeds

Tolerant Species

Beech nut


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Intolerant species are generally the “first in” after an event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.

These trees are often called pioneer species.

These trees tend to:

- be fast growing

- be short-lived

- have light seeds

Intolerant Species

Sweetgum leaf


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  • How does succession first begin in a disturbed area? event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.

    • bird droppings

    • animals carry seeds in fur

    • wind blown seeds

    • existing seed bank in soil gets the needed sunlight

    • floods or high rains will leave behind seeds

# 43 Have Seeds Will Travel


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  • Succession is healthy for a forest event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.:

  • since healthy forests are better able to withstand and recover from stress the outside environment imposes.

  • by increasing the forest’s biodiversity allowing other species to grow.


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One of Earth’s most valuable resources: event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.

Biodiversity is the variety and complexity of species that are present and that interact in an ecosystem, plus the relative abundance of each.

One of the biggest threats to biodiversity…

# 9 Planet Diversity


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Invasive Species event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.

Plants

Insects

Diseases


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Invasive species are organisms that are not native to the area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area.A recent estimate has put the economic cost of invasive plants in natural areas, agriculture, and gardens at $35 billion per year.

#12 Invasive Species


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Invasives often demonstrate: area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area. * rapid growth * prolific seed production * high seed germination rates * easy asexual propagation * resistance to many types of control


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introduced area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area.

Non-native

Non-indigenous

exotic

Synonyms

noxious

weeds

alien


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Invasives are opportunistic organisms that often use disturbances as their gateway into a new area, from there they can create monocultures and seriously alter their surroundings.


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Japanese Stilt Grass disturbances as their gateway into a new area, from there they can create monocultures and seriously alter their surroundings.Microstegium vimineum


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Many plants were that are now considered invasives where introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

Many do not have the natural controls that kept its population in check and grow out of control, displacing many of our native species.


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  • SUDDEN OAK DEATH (SOD) introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

  • FUNGUS THAT ATTACKS MEMBER OF THE RED OAK GROUP

  • NEEDS MEMBERS OF THE BLUEBERRY FAMILY TO REPRODUCE

  • CAN KILL LARGE TREES IN AS LITTLE AS THREE YEARS


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Major Forest Types introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

  • There are six major forest types in the contiguous United States

    • The Northern Forest

    • The Central Forest

    • The Southern Forest

    • The Bottomland Forest

    • The West Coast Forest

    • The Western Interior Forest


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Delaware is a unique state! introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

  • Delaware is a unique state because the upper portion of the state lays in the Central Forest type and lower Delaware is made up of the Southern Forest type.


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Southern Magnolia introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

Magnolia grandifolia


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What is Silviculture? introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

  • Silviculture is the application of the principles of forest ecology to a stand of trees to help meet specified objectives.

  • Objectives can include income, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation, or any other values a forest is capable of providing.


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How do we introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships. DO silviculture?

  • Determine your goals for your forest.

  • Evaluate existing conditions in the forest.

  • Decide what treatments, if any, can help you reach your goals.

  • Implement treatments at the right time.


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Even-aged vs. Uneven-aged Management introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.

  • Your management goals and the shade tolerances of the species involved will determine whether to manage on an even-aged or uneven-aged basis.

  • A Rule of Thumb:

     For intolerant species, even-aged management is best.

     Use uneven-aged management for tolerant species.


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