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Developing Dynamic Capabilities in the Technological Library Environme nt. Diana L.H.Chan The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Outline. The Technological Library Environment Framework of Dynamic Capability (1) Sensing the Environmental Challenges
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DevelopingDynamicCapabilitiesin the Technological Library Environment Diana L.H.Chan The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Outline • The Technological Library Environment • Framework of DynamicCapability (1) Sensing the Environmental Challenges (2) Realigning and Reconfiguring Library Resources (3) ImplementingHumanResourcesStrategies • Implications for AcademicLibrarians
HKUST • Founded in 1991 • No. 33, QS World University Rankings in 2012 No. 1, QS Asian Universities Rankings in 2012
Population • Students: 12,000； 40% SENG, 36% SBM, 21% SSCI, 3% H/SS • U/G-64%；P/G -36% • Faculty：500
Extension in 2011 • Information & Learning Commons HKUSTLibrary • 12,000 sq.m. in 5 Levels • 90 Library Staff • 1.6 m visits & 2 m virtual visits
DynamicCapabilities • A firm with dynamic capabilities is defined as its ability to • integrate, • build, • reconfigure competences to address rapidly changing environments (Teece 1997, 2007, Winter 2002)
DynamicCapabilities • Libraries are urged to be dynamically capable, equipped with abilities that can: (1) sense environmental impacts, (2) realign and reconfigure their resources, (3) implement effective strategies to respond to these incoming threats
(1) Sensing the Environmental Challenges • Ability to decode, assess and filter incoming environmental challenges of an organization and effectively communicate these threats with its internal senior management (Teece 2007) • The process includes scanning, searching, and exploring in technological and user spheres (Nelson and Winter 1982)
Sensing the Environmental Challenges HKUST Library - Sensingby 20 Librarians Heads, Managers, Committees, Working Groups, Taskforce and Teams
E.G. 1 – Developing the Learning Commons How Listserv RSS feeds Newsletters Meetings Seminars Conferences Literature Focus groups User forums Library visits What Emerging user demands Design requirements Latest developments at HKUST, HK, Asia, World Outcome
E.G. 2 – Library Retreat 2012 • Strategic Planning • Scenario Planning • Redefining the Academic Library • Group discussion on all strategic goals • Action plans with timelines • Measures of success • Identified resources and training implications • What Library has prepared for double cohorts • 20% and 30% scenario • Identified servicesand operations affected, e.g. seats, course reserve, noise, popular titles, study rooms.. • Solutions, contingency plans
Outcomesfrom the SensingProcess • Discussions builtconsenusamong senior management team • Enables us to developnecessary goals and legitimizestrategiesthatrealign and reconfigure ourresources to betterprepare for new challenges and changes
(2) Re-aligning and Re-configuringresources • A Dynamic Capable institution has the ability to realignitslimitedresources in a dynamic world • fromlowdemand areas • to higherpriority areas • to tech-driven areas • In order to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency in managment, operation and service provision
2012 Library Re-alignment • Systems & Digital Services (16 staff) • Head and AUL • IT & Services Infrastructure Manager • Systems Librarians (2) • Learning Commons Manager • Archivist & Special Collections Manager • Library TechnologyOfficers (3) • Senior Technicians , Technicians, EO, LAs (6) • Studentprogrammers, interns, helpers • Increasing importance on technological supports • Re-configureresources to higherpriority & tech-driven areas
HKUST LIBRARY ORGANIZATIONAL CHART 2012 University Librarian Administration Office Technical Services Access Services Systems & Digital Services Reference & Collection Services Systems Acquisitions Circulation Collection Development Media Resources Building & Facilities Archives & Special Collections Information & Learning Commons Document Supply Service Cataloging Reference . 20 August 2012
(3) Implementing Effective Human Resources Strategies • A dynamic capable organization has the ability to execute the strategies, move the new “reformed” organization ahead into the implementation stage • Maintain a transparent internal communication channel • Redeployment • Collective learning
CUS Connection • A monthly informal meeting with 15 staff • Get connected, improve communication • Provide co-creation and participative management • Foster team spirit Departmental Wiki
Staff Redeployment Combining Information & Reference Counter Combining Reserve & Circulation Counter Manning IC & LC Help Desk Realigning staff to functions of increasing demands Training, coaching, meeting are indispensable A new Promotion Design Force PDF is formed to design posters
Collective Learning Mechanisms • Knowledge accumulation • Work routines that are stored as procedural memory and collective wisdom of an organization • Key management processes accumulated over time • Experiential in nature learned through trial and error • Knowledge articulation • When experiential wisdom on the execution of particular tasks was shared • Through sharing and constructive discussions, collective learning happened • Knowledge codification • Explicit knowledge of understandings of the performance implications of internal routines • Work manuals,guidelines, and patterns in the execution of a complex task (Zollo and Winter 2002)
-14-week on Web2.0 • 50 staff joined • 32 completed • Given time at work to learn • - Some staff helped in Facebook page
Presentation Materials An information pool for library tours Digital Images SmartCAT Mobile Technologies Learning Commons
Refresher & Training Sessions Students using Facebook Group for communication, peer support and training signup Staff training and Refresher Sessions
References • The 2010 Campus Computing Survey. (2010) http://www.campuscomputing.net/summary/2010-campus-computing-survey • Chan, D.L.H. (2012). Some thoughts for tomorrow’s academic libraries. International Conference on Change and Challenge: Redefine the Future of Academic Libraries. Peking University, China. Nov 4-6, 2012. • Chan, D.L.H., Soong, S.C. (2011). Strategic repositioning in a dynamic environment. Library Management, 32(1/2), 22-36. • Huczynski, A.A. and Buchannan, D.A. (2007). Organizational Behaviour: an Introductory Text. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Harlow • Nelson R. and Winter, S. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. • QS Asian Universities Rankings – Overall. (2012) http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/asian-university-rankings/2012 • QS World University Rankings – Overall. (2012). http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2012?page=1 • Schaffhauser, D. (2012, September 5). E-Textbook pilot grows to 25 schools even as U Minn opts out. Campus Technology, http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2012/09/05/E-Textbook-Pilot-Grows-to-25-Schools-Even-as-U-Minn-Opts-Out.aspx?Page=1
References • Teece, D.J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of sustainable enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319-1350. • Teece, D.J, Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533. • University Leadership Council. (2011). Redefining the academic library managing the migration to digital information services. http://www.educationadvisoryboard.com/pdf/23634-EAB-Redefining-the-Academic-Library.pdf • Winter, S.G. (2002). Understanding dynamic capabilities, a working paper of the Reginald H. Jones Center WP 2002-05, the Wharton School University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, 2002. • Zollo, M. and Winter, S.G. (2002). Deliberate learning and the evolution of dynamic capabilities. Organization Science, 13(3), 339-351.