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Classical Art. Greece and Rome. Greece. Intellectual and creative influences still hold a place in contemporary societies Attitudes toward life Humanism People the focus Physically and mentally fit Balance between mind and body Balance between emotion and intellect Naturalism

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classical art

Classical Art

Greece and Rome

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Greece
  • Intellectual and creative influences still hold a place in contemporary societies
    • Attitudes toward life
      • Humanism
          • People the focus
      • Physically and mentally fit
          • Balance between mind and body
          • Balance between emotion and intellect
      • Naturalism
          • Truth based on observation of nature
      • Idealism
          • When nature fell short of perfection the Greeks turned toward an accepted standard of beauty
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Greece
  • Birth place of Aesthetics
    • Aesthetics: a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
    • Why was Aesthetics born in Greece?
        • Philosophy was born in Greece
        • They loved order and feared chaos and they saw order in art
        • High premium on the physical
          • Athletics
        • Advanced understanding of geometric forms
        • Wealth
          • Trade related
        • Communication skills
          • Trade related
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Greece
  • Key figures in discussing aesthetics
      • Aristotle
      • Socrates
      • Plato
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Greece
  • Periods
    • Geometric
    • Archaic
    • Classical
    • Hellenistic
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Greece
  • Geometric
      • Shapes and patterns
      • Conceptual figures
    • Dipylon Vase
      • Terra-cotta
      • 42 5/8” tall
      • Grave marker
      • Figures:
        • Frontal view
        • Profile legs and arms
        • Profile head
        • Frontal eyes
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Greece
  • Archaic
      • Figure replaced Geometric patterns
    • Francois Vase
      • Ceramic
      • 26” tall
      • Divided into 6 registers
      • Attempt at naturalism
        • Figures not static as in the Dipylon Vase
        • Handles actually echo design
      • Black-figure painting
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Greece
  • Black-figure painting
    • Black figures on a reddish background
    • Figures painted on using a brush and slip
    • First fired in oxidation
    • Second fired in reduction
      • This pulled the red color out of the clay body
    • Then, finer details incised with sharp tool
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Greece

Doric

  • Archaic Architecture

Ionic

Corinthian

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Greece
  • Sculpture
      • In the Archaic period, sculpture emerged as the principle art form
      • Freestanding, life-sized, and larger-than-life-sized
      • Influenced by Egyptians
      • Temples ornamented with sculptures
        • Frieze and pediment
    • Dying Warrior & Fallen Warrior
      • These works require the viewer to piece the drama together by collecting information from scattered realistic elements
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Greece
  • Kouros figure
    • Marble
    • 6’4” tall
    • Devotional or funerary
    • Similar to Egyptian sculptures
    • Different though:
      • The stone was carved away from the body, releasing it from the block
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Greece
  • Kore figure
    • Female counterpart of the kouros
    • Peplos is the heavy woolen wrap she is wearing
    • Touches of paint
      • Colors often used:
        • Red, blue, yellow, green, black and gold
    • Beauty lies in the lines of this work
      • Contour and implied
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Greece
  • Classical
    • Early Classical
    • Classical
    • Late Classical
    • Hellenistic Art
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Greece
  • Early Classical
    • Diskobolos
        • Discus Thrower
        • Example of implied movement which was newly introduced in the Early Classical period
        • Idealized
        • However more realistic
        • Balance is key
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Greece
  • Classical Art
      • Height of Greek Art
    • Arcitecture
      • Typical Greek temple
slide22

Rear Porch

Cella

Porch

Colonnade

Stylobate

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Greece
  • The Parthenon
    • Dedicated to Athena the protector of Athens
    • Doric order
    • Stylobate is convex
    • The columns are tilted inward and swell and the midpoint
    • Used as Byzantine church, Roman Catholic church and mosque
    • Used as an ammunition dump by the Turks in their was against the Venetians
      • The cella was hit by a Venetian rocket
slide29

Sculpture

    • The Three Goddesses
      • Marble
      • 4’7” tall
      • From the Parthenon
      • Phidias
      • Characteristics
        • Weighty
        • Naturalistic poses
        • Realistic drapery
            • Folds are articulate
            • Thinner drapery clings to the body
slide30

Doryphoros

    • Spear Bearer
    • Marble
    • 6’6” tall
    • Weight-shift principle
      • Polykleito’sstlye
slide31

Noibid Painter

    • Red-figure
    • Argonaut Krater
      • Registers eliminated
      • Attempted realism
        • Outlining foreground, middle ground and background
        • Fails in the end
          • Placement of figures not correct
          • Scale
          • Still waiting on perspective
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Hermes = messenger god

Greece
  • Late Classical
    • Sculpture
      • Hermes and Dionysos
        • Marble
        • 7’1”
        • Praxiteles
        • Softer flesh
        • S curve

Dionysos = god of wine

slide33

Apoxyomenos

      • Original in bronze
      • 6’6” tall
      • Lysippos
        • Introduced new canon of proportions the introduced a more slender and graceful figure
      • The viewer is forced to walk around the sculpture
        • Due to arm positions
      • S curve seems to spiral in this work
slide35

Hellenistic Art

      • Excessive and theatrical emotion
      • Use of illusion to heighten realism
      • Space around figures is treated as an extension of the viewer’s space
    • The Dying Gaul
      • Unlike The Fallen Warrior
        • It’s all there and relatively seamless
          • Blood pouring out of wounds
          • Head hangs
          • Overall body language
the romans

The Romans

Architecture and sculpture

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Rome
  • Art absorbed a great amount of Greek style and content often referred to as Grecco-Roman
    • Major difference between the Romans and Greeks would be the Roman preference for near trompel’oiel realism in their portrait sculpture
    • Greeks were about idealism in their sculpture
      • Recall the Riace Bronzes and why the Greeks were unsatisfied with the Kritian Boy
slide43
Rome
  • Head of a Roman
      • 14 3/8” tall
      • Marble
      • Republican Period
      • No attempt at idealizing this man
      • A neutral record of this man
slide46
Rome
  • Augustus of Primaporta
      • Marble
      • 6’8” tall
      • Early Empire
      • Pure realism of the Republican Period joined the idealism of the Greeks
      • Example of individual’s head on idealized body in a Classical pose
        • Similar to Doryphoros
        • Head unique and idealized
slide47
Rome
  • Marcus Aurelius on Horseback
      • Larger than life-size
      • Bronze
      • Early Empire
      • Combines the Roman love of realism with a later concern for psychologically penetrating portraits
        • Horse is muscular
        • Emperor is calm reflecting a Stoic philosophy
          • Stoicism: indifference to emotion and things of this world was a key virtue in life
        • Only survives b/c they Christians thought it was Constantine
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Rome
  • Head of Constantine the Great
      • Enormous sculpture:
        • Marble head and limbs
        • Wooden body covered in bronze
        • Head is 8 feet tall
      • Realism and idealism replaced by archaic expression
      • Christianity taking over and the Roman Empire was failing