The Renaissance and Reformation . Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy . I. Renaissance= “ Rebirth ” . Period begun by Italy’s educated to recreate the culture of Greece and Rome . . II. Causes of the Renaissance . End of Feudalism End of Plagues End of Riots
The Renaissance and Reformation Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy
I. Renaissance= “Rebirth” • Period begun by Italy’s educated to recreate the culture of Greece and Rome.
II. Causes of the Renaissance • End of Feudalism • End of Plagues • End of Riots • Improvement in trade industry • Improvement in livestockproduction • Improvement in peasant life
III. Where did the Renaissance Begin? • a. Began in the heart of Italy (Florence) because: • i. Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. • ii. Religious center (Christianity- Pope of Rome) • iii. Start of craft guilds (wool)
iv. Serfs were given more freedom • v. Improvement in Bookkeeping Methods (Fibbonacci) • vi. Development in urban centers. • vii. Presence and success of middle class. • viii. Humanistic philosophy or values.
IV. Humanism-philosophy which stressed: • a. Self worth of the individual • i. Portraits • ii. Autobiographies • iii. Artists wanted to be known for their creations
b. Love of Learning and the Arts • i. Establishment of many universities • ii. Funding of education by the Catholic Church and wealthy aristocrats. • iii. Stressed Latin & Greek and development • iv. Translated the Bible • v. Taught less Bible and more Classic Literature
C. Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures • a. Fancy materials and luxuries • b. Tasty foods • c. Goods traded
V. Achievements • a. Art • i. Studied classical models • 1. work reflected the realism & grace of ancient styles • 2. experimented with new paints & techniques ii. Developed perspective- a method of painting that makes objects or scenes appear 3D.
3. artists • a. Raphael • b. Da Vinci • c. Michelangelo • d. women: • i. Kept their work secret • ii. SofonisbaAnguissola-court painter to King Philip II of Spain
b. Literature • i. Topics ranged from religious to secular subjects • 1. Miguel de Cervantes- Don Quixote • 2. Shakespeare • 3. Francesco Petrarch- Sonnets to Laura
C. Printing Press • i. Johann Gutenberg- movable type • ii. 1455 press used to produce the first Bible printed by machine • iii. Books no longer had to be copied by hand • iv. Helped spread the new learning/people were literate
VI. Period of Great Discovery and Exploration • a. Why Explore? • i. New Technology- caravel, compass, astrolabe • ii. Geography- Ptolemy • iii. Self Confidence of the Renaissance
b. Effects of Exploration • i. Map coast of Africa (west coast) • ii. Two new continents discovered and explored • iii. Magellan circumnavigated • iv. Effects of the Exploration of the New World • 1. Colonies in the New World • 2. New foods