AP European HistoryReview Session #2 Absolutism, Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution, French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution
Overview • Absolutism (and English Constitutionalism) • the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution • the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era • the Industrial Revolution
Absolutism the Key Questions • what are the key countries to know? • what theories support the Absolutism? • how did Absolutism develop? • why was England the exception?
Absolutism main countries • Russia, Prussia, and France (of course) • Russia • Ivan the Terrible • Romanovs • Peter the Great and his policies • Prussia • Hohenzollerns • Frederick William (the Soldier King) • Frederick the Great • Junkers
France • the path to Absolutism: Francis I • Hapsburg rivalry • controlling the Church • French Wars of Religion • development of Absolutism • Cardinal Richelieu • Thirty Years War • Intendant System • Cardinal Mazarin and the Fronde • Louis XIV • Bossuet and divine right of kings • Colbert and mercantilism • Louis’s wars • Versailles • religion • France and Europe’s premier power and cultural leader
the Exception – English Constitutionalism • the Tudors the Stuarts • James I • divine right of kings • problems with Parliament • the English Civil War • Charles I and Parliament • Petition of Right • proroguing Parliament • Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth • the Restoration • the Glorious Revolution
the Scientific Revolution • astronomy and physics (and math) • Copernicus • Kepler • Galileo • Newton • medicine • Vesalius • Harvey
the Enlightenment key questions • how was it connected to the Scientific Revolution? • why did it start? where did it start? • how did it affect governments?
the Enlightenment • connection to the Scientific Revolution • Bacon • Descartes • location: France and its salons • key figures • Hobbes (pre-Enlightenment) • Locke (sort of Enlightenment) • Voltaire • Rosseau • Montesquieu • Diderot • Smith • Enlightened Despots: Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, Maria Theresa, Josef II
the French Revolution and Napoleon the Key Questions • why did it start? • why did it radicalize? • how did the conservative reaction work? • how did Napoleon affect Europe (and the world) in the short term? long term?
French Revolution • causes of the French Revolution • Ancien Regime: 3 estates • taxing the 3rd Estate • Bourgeoisie’s desire for more political power • the Revolution • moderate stage: National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, the Bastille, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Great Fear, March on Versailles • radical stage: Wars of the Revolution, a republic!, Jacobins and Girondins, Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety and the Terror • reactionary stage: Thermidorian Reaction, the Directory, Consulate, Napoleon
Napoleon • reforms • Concordat of 1801 • Napoleonic Code • educational system • lightening up on the peasants independent peasantry • his fate • conquering Europe • the Continental System • Russian winters • abdication, 100 Days, Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe
the Industrial Revolution the Key Questions • where did it start and why? • how are the causes linked to • the Agricultural Revolution? • the Commercial Revolution? • Mercantilism? • what are the effects? • practical • theoretical
Industrial Revolution what precedes it: • Agricultural Revolution • crop rotation • Columbian Exchange • Enclosure Movement • Mercantilism • Commercial Revolution • Capitalism
Industrial Revolution • when and where and why? • power: coal, steam, oil • textiles: Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, etc. • transportation: steamships, trains, cars (later) • results • good: wages, cheaper goods, rising standard of living, middle class • bad: working conditions, slums, pollution • theories: Malthus, Ricardo, socialism • Communism: Marx and Engels, dialectical materialism, class struggle, revolution
FRQ Practice Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. (2003 #2)