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BACKGROUND OF THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE ROMAN MISSAL. In 1962 while Vatican II was still in session several English-speaking bishops met in Rome to discuss possibility of a uniform English translation of the liturgy for all English-speaking countries. .

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BACKGROUND OF THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE ROMAN MISSAL


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    1. BACKGROUND OF THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATIONOF THE ROMAN MISSAL

    2. In 1962 while Vatican II was still in session several English-speaking bishops met in Rome to discuss possibility of a uniform English translation of the liturgy for all English-speaking countries.

    3. In 1963 bishops representing 10 countries formally established the International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL).

    4. The episcopal conferences were Australia, Canada, England and Wales, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, Scotland, South Africa, and the United States. The Philippines joined in 1967, becoming the 11th member of ICEL.

    5. In 1964 the Commission drew up a formal mandate defining its structure: an episcopal board composed of the chairmen of the member conferences as governing body and an advisory board composed of experts for the work of translation.

    6. Liturgists – MA, PhD, DL, SLL, SLD Scripture Scholars – SSL, SSD Theologians – STL, STD Linguists – Language Teachers (Latin & English) Anthropologists Musicians, Poets, Literature

    7. The mandate included the provision to translate from the original Latin texts and the freedom of individual bishops’ conferences the right to amend or modify a particular text to reject the final result.

    8. In June 29, 1969 the Congregation of Rites together with the Consilium ad exsequendam issued the Instruction Comme le prévoit regarding norms to be followed in translating liturgical texts.

    9. This document, which guided all works of translation until the appearance of another new Instruction from the Congregation for Divine Worship under Cardinal Francis Arinze called Liturgiamauthenticam in 2001, changing the rules of translation from the dynamic equivalence ofComme le prévoit to formal correspondence or literal translation.

    10. Instruction on the vernacular translation of the Roman Liturgy which outlines the principles and rules for translation Comme le Prevoit 1969 Congregation of Rites Dynamic Equivalence Sense Translation 1973 First and Second Edition LiturgiamAuthenticam March 28, 2001 Congregation for Dicvine Worship Formal Correspondence Literal Translation/Word for Word 2010 Roman Missal, Third Edition

    11. Dynamic Equivalence Formal Correspondence or Literal translation means that the Latin words and phrases are rendered as they stand, sometimes or often with no regard to the cultural, at times also linguistic, attributes of the audience. Translates the text of the source language (Latin) word-for-word, at the expense of the linguistic traits of the receptor language (vernacular). Is a type of translation, which biblical translator Eugene Nida called “dynamic equivalence” considers the general meaning and message of the source language as a whole rather than the single words and phrases.

    12. “The translator must always keep in mind that the "unit of meaning" is not the individual word but the whole passage. The translator must therefore be careful that the translation is not so analytical that it exaggerates the importance of particular phrases while it obscures or weakens the meaning of the whole.” Fidelity to the Latin text so that the richness of the Latin text could be shared Clear allusions to the scriptures so that a clearer connection may be recognized between the Word of God and the liturgical texts.

    13. In the liturgy the vernacular is the receptor language, while liturgical Latin is the source language. Typical Liturgical language – Latin original language Receptor Language – English

    14. LiturgiamAuthenticam, 20 “it is to be kept in mind from the beginning that the translation of the liturgical texts of the Roman Liturgy is not so much a work of creative innovation as it is of rendering the original texts faithfully and accurately into the vernacular language”

    15. Liturgiam Authenticam, 20 “While it is permissible to arrange the wording, the syntax and the style in such a way as to prepare a flowing vernacular text suitable to the rhythm of popular prayer,

    16. Liturgiam Authenticam • liturgical translations need to preserve the “dignity, beauty, and doctrinal precision” of the original text.

    17. Latin: Et cum spiritutuo. 1973 2010 And with your spirit. And also with you.

    18. “And with your spirit” This is a closer translation of the Latin, “Et cum spiritutuo,” and it matches the response already exists in most other major languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

    19. The translation we have been using is adequate, but the revised translation is richer. The purpose of this greeting is not just to say “Hello” or “Good morning.” It alerts participants that they are entering sacramental realm and reminds them of their responsibilities during this time we will spend at prayer.

    20. In addition, Jesus promised that he would be with his followers until the end of the age (Matthew 28:20). In English, we use a variant of it when we say farewell. “Goodbye” comes from “God be with you”

    21. Both the greeting and the reply come from the Bible. “The Lord be with you” appears as a greeting or encouragement in Judges 6:12, Ruth 2:4, 2 Chronicles 15:2, and Luke 1:28.

    22. “And with your spirit” is inspired by passages that conclude four of the New Testament epistles: 2 Timothy 4:22, Galatians 6:18, Philippians 4:23, Philemon 25. In almost every case, Paul addresses the words to the Christian community, not to one minister.

    23. What it is. In simple terms it is an ancient Greek and Roman formula of replying respectfully to a greeting. Applied to the liturgy, it is the assembly’s answer to the priest’s (or deacon’s) greeting “The Lord be with you”. Spirit here represents what is noblest in a person and it is to this that the greeting is returned.

    24. It is similar to our honorific addresses, like Your Reverence, Your Excellency, Your Honor, and so on. However, it is not the same as these, because spirit is not an honorific title but the innermost possession of a person.

    25. What it is not. The word “spirit” in the response does not refer to the person of the Holy Spirit. The origin of this formula does not in any way allow us to do so. In fact, both Latin and English do not use the capital letter.

    26. Neither does the word mean “priestly spirit”, because even the deacon, who does not yet possess the “priestly spirit”, receives this reply when he greets the assembly.

    27. It is useful to note that the greeting itself, which assures us of the Lord’s presence in our assembly, is more important than the reply.

    28. Christ’s Presence in the Liturgy Through catechesis the faithful should be made aware of Christ’s presence in the assembly, in the proclaimed word, in the consecrated bread and wine, and in the priest that presides in the person of Christ.

    29. Confiteor I confess

    30. Latin: Meaculpa, meaculpa, meamaximaculpa. 1973 Translation: I have sinned through my own fault. (compressed the triple mea culpa in one) 2010 Translation: through myfault, through my fault, through my most grievousfault.

    31. 1973 ConfíteorDeoomnipoténti et vobis, fratres, quiapeccávinimis cogitatióne, verbo, ópere et omissióne: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned through my own fault in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do;

    32. 1973 Ídeo precor beátam Maríam semper Virginem, omnesAngelos et Sanctos, et vos, fratres, oráre pro me ad Dóminum Deum nostrum and I ask the blessed Mary, ever virgin, all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord, our God.

    33. 2010 ConfíteorDeoomnipoténti et vobis, fratres, quiapeccávinimis cogitatióne, verbo, ópere et omissióne: I confess to almighty God and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned, in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done and in what I have failed to do,

    34. 2010 mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. Ídeo precor beátam Maríam semper Virginem, omnesAngelos et Sanctos, et vos, fratres, oráre pro me ad Dóminum Deum nostrum. And striking our breasts, we say: through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault. Therefore I ask the blessed Mary ever-Virgin, all the Angels and Saints, and you, my brothers and sisters to pray for me to the Lord our God.

    35. What it is. The admission “through my fault” restores the Latin triple mea culpa, which the 1973 translation simplified.

    36. The restoration has its value in our time when the sense of sin is quickly vanishing from the consciousness of people. By publicly repeating the triple mea culpa the faithful are made aware of the pervading presence of sin in their personal lives as well as in society at large.

    37. “Through my fault” is redundant, as if we could commit sin through the fault of another. There are no occasions when we can pass the guilt of our sins to other people, because sin is always a free and deliberate choice.

    38. What it is not. The grammatical analysis of the Latin sentence shows that the triple mea culpa is in the nominative case: “my fault, my fault, my most grievous fault”. It should not have been translated with the preposition “through”.

    39. The triple repetition of “through my fault” should not minimize its gravity. Sometimes the frequent repetition of a word, phrase, or sentence lessens their impact, as the Latin adage puts it: repetitanauseant). In Japanese culture “thank you” may be said many times, but “I am sorry” is suspected of being insincere, if said more than once.

    40. Some languages, like Italian, Ilocano, and Bicol, translate mea culpa without the preposition.

    41. Gloria in excelsisDeo Glory to God in the highest

    42. Gloria 1973 2010 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to people of good will. Glory to God in the highest, and peace to his people on earth.

    43. 1973 2010 We praise you, we bless you, we adore you, we give you thanks for your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King, O God, almighty Father. Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory.

    44. Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God, Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father,

    45. Litany: invocation & response you take away the sin of the world have mercy on us; you are seated at the right hand of the Father: receive our prayer. you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; you take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer; you are seated at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us.

    46. For 1973 & 2010 it is the same For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord, you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen. For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord, you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen

    47. 1973 Glória in excélsisDeo et in terra pax homínibus bonævoluntátis. Glory to God in the highest, and peace to his people on earth.

    48. Laudámuste, benedícimuste, adorámuste, glorificámuste, grátiaságimustibi propter magnamglóriamtuam, Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory.

    49. God the Father Dómine Deus, Rex celéstis, Deus Pater omnípotens. Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father,

    50. God the Son: Jesus Christ Dómine Fili unigénite, Iesu Christe, Dómine Deus, Agnus Dei, FíliusPatris, Lord Jesus Christ,only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God,