America Moves Toward War/Mobilizes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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America Moves Toward War/Mobilizes

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  1. America Moves Toward War/Mobilizes Chappy24.4 and 25.1

  2. 1939 – Neutrality Act • US moves away from Neutrality – “Cash and Carry” • Warring nations could buy U.S. arms – had to pay cash and had to transport them in their own ships • Roosevelt argued that helping arm British and French could help keep American soldiers OUT of the war

  3. Axis Powers Combine • September 1940 • Germany, Italy, and Japan sign Tripartite Pact – mutual defense agreement • Aimed to keep America out of War • If America declares war on any member, others pledge support – war across Atlantic and Pacific

  4. Selective Service and Lend-Lease • First peace-time military draft to bolster U.S. defenses • 16 million men age 21-35 registered, 1 million would be drafted for one year, but only would serve in the Western Hemisphere • Allies need more help – Britain is out of cash • Roosevelt pushes for Lend-Lease Act allowing U.S. to lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States.” • Aid to Britain and also Russia (Germany broke non-aggression pact in June 1941)

  5. Atlantic Charter • Joint declaration of war aims between Roosevelt and Churchill • Collective security • Disarmament • Self-determination • Economic cooperation • Freedom of the seas • Following German U-Boat “Wolf Packs” sinking several merchant ships and the destroyer Reuben James, Senate agreed to allow them to be armed • “The shooting has started. And history has recorded who fired the first shot.” -FDR

  6. Pearl Harbor • Japan had been increasing its influence in Pacific over American protests • U.S. oil embargo pushes Japan to brink of war • Dec. 7, 1941 – Japan launches surprise attack on US • Pearl Harbor was home to US Navy Pacific Fleet, most of which was destroyed • Japan figured US wanted nothing to do with them after Pearl Harbor. • They were mistaken…

  7. Mobilizing • Selective Service System • People pumped up to fight (5 million volunteers), but not enough; expanded draft brings in 10 million more • No draft today, but Selective Service remains • WAAC – Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (later just Women’s Army Corps) • Non-combat roles for women who wished to serve • Ambulance drivers, nurses, radio operators, etc.

  8. Entertainment and Industry • Propaganda helped to whip up anti-Axis sentiment. • Industry converted to wartime production • Minorities and women make up much of workforce – why? • Unions push Roosevelt to issue executive order for equitable treatment for minorities

  9. Science and Bureaucracy • Improve radar and sonar, pesticides (fight lice and other pests), penicillin • Manhattan Project – atomic bomb • Accelerated development of nuclear weapons – get them before Hitler did. • Office of Price Administration (OPA) • Froze prices on goods • Raise income tax to reduce consumer demands (less to spend) • Rationing • War Production Board (WPB) • Organize industrial repurposing • Collect needed materials – iron, tin, paper, rags, cooking fat, other useful junk