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第四章 从错误中学习英语,而且这是更重要的学习 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第四章 从错误中学习英语,而且这是更重要的学习 提要 :本章主要分析《计算机世界》报中两个英语学习专栏中随手就可以发现的一些错误。希望大家从中认识到目前许多翻译的资料存在着这样或那样的错误,千万不要迷信或盲从。 4.1 《计算机专业时文选读》中的一些错误 Weeks of reading and studying one(?)-dimensional images will become sessions of computer manipulations. 原译:数周阅读和学习一维图象将变成计算机操作的 对话 。

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第四章

从错误中学习英语,而且这是更重要的学习

提要:本章主要分析《计算机世界》报中两个英语学习专栏中随手就可以发现的一些错误。希望大家从中认识到目前许多翻译的资料存在着这样或那样的错误,千万不要迷信或盲从。

4.1 《计算机专业时文选读》中的一些错误

Weeks of reading and studying one(?)-dimensional images will become sessions of computer manipulations.

原译:数周阅读和学习一维图象将变成计算机操作的对话。

改译:阅读和学习一维图象的这几个星期将变成操作计算机的过程。


The Australian Institute of Marine Science,has created a system with a private company called WetPC Pty.in Garran,Australia,that allows users to control a computer attached toa wet suit while underwater and transfer data to researchers on land.

原译:澳大利亚海洋科学研究院与一家位于澳大利亚加兰市叫WetPC Pty.的私人公司研制了一个系统,能让用户在水下控制与湿衣服相连的计算机,给陆地上的研究人员传送数据。

改译:澳大利亚海洋科学研究院与一家位于澳大利亚加兰市叫WetPC Pty.的私人公司研制了一个系统,能让用户在水下控制潜水服上的计算机,给陆地上的研究人员传送数据。


While the 233-MHz system isn't ready for sale,officials boast that it has the power of a ThinkPad 560X shrunk to the size of a Palm Pilot.

原译:虽然这种233兆赫的系统还不准备卖,但IBM的官员称该系统把 ThinkPad 560X 的能力缩小到如Palm Pilot 掌上机般大小。

改译:虽然这种233兆赫的系统还不准备卖,但IBM的官员称该系统具有笔记本电脑 ThinkPad 560X的功能,但体积只有掌上电脑 Palm Pilot 般大小。


The jacket also features a Philips Rush digital audio player and a Xenium phone with voice command and voice dialing capabilities.

原译:此茄克衫还具有飞利浦的Rush数字音响器和具有口授命令和口授拨号功能的Xenium电话。

改译:此茄克衫还装备了飞利浦Rush数码播放机和带有语音命令和语音拨号功能的Xenium电话。

This system scales exponentially: n qubits can stand for 2 n numbers at once.

原译:这种系统的扩展呈指数形式上升:n个量位能马上代表2的n次位。

改译:这种系统可以指数式地扩展:n个量位能同时表示2 n个数。


Unlike a conventional computer, a quantum computer could conceivably process every possible input simultaneously through a series of quantum switches connected in parallel.

原译:和常规计算机不一样,量子计算机可以通过并行连接的一系列量子开关令人信服地对每一个可能的输入同时进行处理。

改译:和常规计算机不一样,量子计算机通过并行连接的一系列量子开关想来可以对每一个可能的输入同时进行处理。


For example, cleansing routines typically verify that numeric fields contain numeric data, ...

原译:例如,通常净化例行程序验证包含数值数据的数值字段,...

改译:例如,通常净化子程序验证数值字段中的数据是否是数值型数据,...

A conventional computer strings together combinations of ones and zeros to represent pieces of information.

原译:常规计算机把1与0串在一起来表示信息的组成部分。

改译:常规计算机把1与0串在一起来表示一条条的信息。


But simply squeezing two chips into one housing doesn't necessarily create an efficient multiprocessor. The biggest challenge to engineers is keepingthese two-headed power plants stoked with data, and this is where some of the biggest design differences will surface among chip vendors.

原译:但简单地把两个芯片塞进一个封装块并不一定能做出高效的多处理器。对工程师来说,最大的挑战是使有两个头的发电厂(即处理器)烧掉数据(即处理数据),这就是将在芯片厂家之间浮现出来的最大的设计差别。

改译:但仅仅把两个芯片塞进一个封装块并不一定能做出高效的多处理器。对工程师来说,最大的挑战是使两个处理器总有数据可处理,这将是芯片厂家之间设计上最大的不同之处。


This could take the industry beyondMoore's Law. That's great news for power users but one more challenge for software programmers.

原译:这有可能将工业界带进摩尔定律以后的时代。这对大用户来说是好消息,但对软件程序员来说却是更多的挑战。

改译:这有可能使计算机产业界超越摩尔定律。这对超级用户来说是好消息,但对软件程序员来说却是更大的挑战。


An additional wrinkle in the MAJC-5200 will be multithreading: The hardware will be able to divide processing tasks into byte-size chunks that flow in an orderly way to each core to avoid any missed processing cycles. But many software applications aren‘t optimized for multithreading. To compensate, the MAJC-5200 will use the Java Virtual Machine to speculatively(投机地、推理地) generate threads in Java programs.

原译:MAJC-5200中的另一项诀窍是多线索:硬件能将处理任务分成字节长度的数据块,它们以有序的方式流到每个(处理器)内核,以避免丢失任何处理周期。但是很多软件应用不能就多线索优化。为补偿之,MAJC-5200利用Java虚拟机有选择地在Java程序中生成线索。

改译:MAJC-5200中的另一项诀窍是多线程:硬件能将处理任务按字节分成数据块,它们顺序流到每个(处理器)内核,以避免错过任何处理周期。但是很多软件应用程序不能对多线程进行优化。为了弥补这个缺陷,MAJC-5200利用Java虚拟机根据推理在Java程序中生成线程。


In contrast, IBM has chosen not to implement multithreading in its higher-speed, 1-GHz Power4 chip. To keep data flowing efficiently, the Power4 will cram 32MB of memory per CPU intoa second- and third-level cache to keep CPU-to-CPU communications flowing and to buffer information retrieved from system memory.

原译:与此相反,IBM在其速度更高的1GHz的Power4芯片中没有采用多线索。为使数据有效流动,把每个CPU中的32兆字节的存储器分成二级和三级的高速缓存,以保持CPU到CPU的通信流畅和缓冲从系统内存中检索到的信息。

改译:与此相反,IBM在其高速的1GHz的Power4芯片中没有采用多线程。为使数据高效流动,把每个CPU中的32兆字节的内存作为一个二级和三级的高速缓存,以保持CPU之间的通信流畅和把从系统内存检索到的信息存入缓存。


Initial Power4 systems will use bus speeds of 500MHz - or half the processor frequency - although the systems are designed for bus speeds greater than 1GHz to anticipate rising processor speeds over time.

原译:虽然系统是为大于1GHz的总线速度设计的,以便适应随时间的推移处理器越来越高的速度,但最初的Power4系统将使用500MHz的总线速度,即只有处理器钟频的一半。

改译:虽然Power4系统的总线速度设计成大于1GHz,以便适应今后越来越高的处理器速度,但初期的Power4系统将使用500MHz的总线速度,即只有处理器主频的一半。


Sun and IBM agree on one thing: Chip multiprocessing is the next big thing in CPU design. In the past, engineers squeezed out faster performance with better process technology, better micro-architectures and better compilers. Chip multiprocessing adds another performance tool that directly addresses the Holy Grail (圣杯)of processor evolution.

原译:Sun和IBM两家公司一致的地方是:芯片多处理是CPU设计的下一个大动作。过去,工程师们利用更好的工艺技术设计出更快的性能、更好的微体系结构和更好的编译器。芯片多处理增加了另一个性能工具,直接针对处理器进化的要害。

改译:Sun和IBM两家公司一致认为:芯片多处理技术是CPU设计的下一个大动作。过去,工程师们想尽办法利用更好的工艺技术、更好的微体系结构和更好的编译器来提高性能。现在芯片多处理技术提供了另一个提高性能的方法,它直接追求处理器开发的最高境界。


4.2 IT next big thing in CPU design. In the past, engineers 新词集锦

A method of testing software that is based on knowledge of how the software is intended to function.Unlike black box testing,which focuses on how the software functions without reference to how it is designed.

原译:一种测试软件的方法,基于对被测软件是如何工作的了解而进行的。不像黑箱测试那样专注于软件如何运行而不考虑它是如何设计的。

改译:一种测试软件的方法,基于对被测软件是如何起作用的了解而进行的。不像黑箱测试那样专注于软件能否起作用,而不考虑它是如何设计的。


The primary concern of this test is whether the program next big thing in CPU design. In the past, engineers works.

原译:这种测试主要关注该程序是否工作。(work有多个意思!)

改译:这种测试主要关注该程序是否能达到目的(或可行)。

using Web servers as hubs for collaborative commerce efforts

原译:将Web服务器作为网络集线器开展协作商务(注意hub有多个意思!)

改译:将Web服务器作为商务活动协作的中心


Marketspace next big thing in CPU design. In the past, engineers

----A new term for the market where electronic commerce is conducted.It encompasses the transition from physically defined markets to markets based on,and controlled by,information.

原译:市场空间

----一个开展电子商务业务的市场新词。它包含由物理定义的市场到基于信息和受信息控制的市场。

改译:市场空间

----一个新词,指开展电子商务业务的市场。这个市场由物理意义的市场过渡到基于信息和受信息控制的市场。


One part of the test checks to see whether a human interlocutor (对话者) engaged in casual keyboard conversation can distinguish between the responses of a person and those from the computer.

原译:该测试的一个部分是检查了解临时键盘交谈的对话者是否能区别开人的响应和计算机的响应。

改译:该测试的一个内容是考察当一个人用键盘作随意交谈时,他是否能区分出是人在回答还是计算机在回答。


... interlocutor (by using software to distribute traffic among multiple network interface cards working simultaneously to transfer information to a server.

原译:... 通过利用软件在同时工作的多个网络接口插卡之间分配通信量将信息传送到服务器 ...

改译:... 通过利用软件把通信量分配在多个网络接口卡,它们同时工作将信息传送到服务器 ...(将信息传送到服务器的不是软件,而是接口卡)


Liveware ---- A slang term for interlocutor (people, to distinguish them from hardware, software, and firmware. Also called wetware.

原译:活件 ----- 人们用来区别硬件、软件和固件的一个专门术语,也称为湿件。

改译:活件 ----- 是人的俚语,它将人区别于硬件、软件和固件。也称为湿件。

Wetware ---- Slang for human beings ---- part of the environment that also includes hardware and software. Also called liveware.

原译:湿件 ---- 人们用来指也包括硬件和软件的一部分环境的专门术语,也称为活件。

改译:湿件 ---- 是人的俚语,人是包括硬件和软件的环境的一部分。也称为活件。


A interlocutor (trusted company or organization that will accept your public key, along with some proof of your identity, and serve as a repository of digital certificates.

原译:愿意接受你的公共密钥以及你身份的某些证明,并作为一个数字证书的可信赖公司或机构。

改译:接受你的公共密钥以及你身份的某些证明,并作为数字证书存储处的一个信托公司或机构。

It is an issuer of digital certificates, the cyberspace equivalent of identity cards.

原译:数字证书发行机构等同于电脑空间身份证的发行机构。

改译:它(认证机构)是数字证书的发行机构,而数字证书是电脑空间中的身份证。(原句包含上述两个意思。)


A certificate authority is responsible for providing and assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up the “key” used in digital certificates for authentication and to encrypt and decrypt sensitive or confidential incoming and outgoing online information.

原译:认证机构负责提供和分配独特的数字串,该数字串组成用于鉴别数字证书的“密钥”,并且对敏感的或保密的输入和输出在线信息进行加密和解密。

改译:认证机构负责提供和分配组成“密钥”的不重复的数字串,该密钥用来鉴别数字证书,以及对敏感的或保密的输入和输出在线信息进行加密和解密。(used in和used to都是修饰密钥)


Cable Modem assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

A modem that sends and receives data through a coaxial cable television network instead of telephone lines, aswith a conventional modem.

原译:有线调制解调器

通过同轴有线电视网而不是象带有普通调制解调器的电话线来发送和接受数据的一种调制解调器。

改译:电缆调制解调器(不能套用无线电视和有线电视的说法,事实上两种modem都是“有线”的。)

通过同轴电缆电视网而不是象普通调制解调器那样通过电话线来发送和接受数据的一种调制解调器。(这里的with不是“带有”的意思,而是“由谁持有”的意思)


Using more and more detailed customer preferences to assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up delineate smaller market groups.

原译:采用越来越详细的客户喜好来勾画更小的市场组。

改译:根据越来越详细的客户喜好将市场(顾客)描述成更小的群体。

Data Conferencing

Simultaneous data communication carries out among geographically separated participants in a meeting.

原译:数据会议在一次会议中,处于不同地理位置的与会者间同时进行的数据通信。

改译:数据会议处于不同地理位置的与会者通过数据通信而举行的会议。


With assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up demand priority, nodes send requests to hubs and the hubs give permission to transmit based on priority levels assigned to the requests by the nodes.

原译:在要求优先级情况下,节点向集线器发送请求,然后集线器按照分配节点请求的优先级批准发送。

改译:利用请求优先级的方法,节点向集线器发出请求,然后集线器按照分配给这些节点请求的优先级决定是否允许传输。


Desktop Conferencing assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

The use of computers for simultaneous communication among geographically separated participants in a meeting.

原译:桌面会议采用计算机实现一次会议在地理位置分散的与会者中进行同时通信。

改译:计算机桌面会议地理位置分散的与会者采用计算机同时通信所举行的会议。

The video images may be recorded on video tape or on a laser disc or may be live footage from a video camera.

原译:视频图像可以记录到录像带或激光盘上,或是摄像机的实况连接镜头。

改译:视频图像可以记录在录像带或光盘上,或者是摄像机的实况连续镜头。


Computer programs that can recognize spoken words assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up as input. Used as an alternative to keyboard input, dictation software cannot comprehend the spoken language; it can only convert and transmit the sounds to the computer.

原译:一种在输入时可以识别口述单词的计算机软件。作为键盘输入的替代物,口述软件不能理解口语;它只能向计算机转换和传送声音。

改译:一种可以识别输入的口述单词的计算机程序。口述软件可以代替键盘输入,但它不能理解口语;它只能向计算机转换和传送声音。


First generation assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up discretespeech systems require the user to speak slowly and distinctly, with pauses between words. Next generation continuous speech systems can interpret natural speech patterns and speeds.

原译:第一代分离的讲话系统要求用户讲话要慢且清楚,在字词间要停顿。下一代连续讲话系统可以翻译自然讲话模式和速度。

改译:第一代非连续的语音系统要求用户讲话要慢且清楚,在字词间要停顿。下一代连续语音系统可以理解自然语音模式和速度。


The assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up copying of a master set of directories from a server (called an export server) tospecified servers or workstations (called import computers) in the same or other domains.

原译:在同一个或其他域内,从服务器(称作导出服务器)中拷贝一套主目录来确定服务器或工作站(称作引入计算机)。

改译:从服务器(称作导出服务器)将一套主目录拷贝到相同域或其他域中指定的服务器或工作站(称作导入计算机)。


Computers assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up can have enough video memory to hold more than one display page at a time. In such instances, programmers, especially those concerned with creating animation sequences, can update the screen rapidly by creating or modifying one display page while another is being viewed by the user.

原译:计算机可有足够大的视频存储器一次保持一个以上的显示页。在此情况下,程序员,尤其是那些关心生成动画序列的程序员可以通过生成或修改一显示页迅速更新屏幕,同时用户查看另一个屏幕。

改译:如果计算机的显示内存足够大,它一次就可以保存多个显示页。这时,程序员,尤其是那些关心生成动画序列的程序员,就可以在用户正在查看一页的情况下,生成或修改另一显示页而迅速更新屏幕。


Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

An Internet routing protocol that provides an efficient mechanism for connectionless datagram delivery to a group of hosts across an Internet network.

原译:距离向量多址广播路由选择协议为向一组互联网络主机传送无线数据报提供有效的机理的一种互联网路由选择协议。

改译:距离向量多址广播路由选择协议一种互联网路由选择协议,它提供一种通过互联网向一组主机传送无连接数据报的有效机制。


Dribbleware assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

Updates, patches, and new drivers for a software product that are released one at a time, as they become available, rather than being issued together in a new version of the product. A company using the dribbleware technique may distribute new and replacement files on diskette or CD ROM, or make them available for download through the Internet or a private network.

原译:分流件软件产品的更新版、补钉程序和新动试,在完成开发后立即发行,而不是与产品新版本一起发行。采用分流技术的公司可以以软盘或CD-ROM的形式发行新的替代文件,或使其能通过互联网下载。

改译:零星件指软件产品的部分更新、补钉程序和新的驱动程序,只要完成开发,每次就发布一个,而不是作为该产品的一个新版本一起发布。采用零星件技术的公司可以用软盘或光盘的形式发行新文件和替代文件,也可以让它们通过互联网或私用网络下载。


Dynamic Allocation assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

The allocation of memory during program execution according to current needs. Dynamic allocation almost always implies that dynamic deallocation is possible too, so data structures can be created and destroyed as required.

原译:动态分配指在程序执行中根据当前需要的内存分配。动态分配几乎总是意味着动态重新分配也是可能的。因此数据结构可以根据需要生成或撤消。

改译:动态分配指在程序执行中根据当前需要来分配内存。动态分配几乎总是意味着动态收回也是可能的。因此,数据结构可以根据需要生成或撤消。


Static Allocation assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

Apportionment of memory that occurs once, usually when the program starts. Thememory remains allocated during the program's execution and is not deallocated until the program is finished.

原译:静态分配通常当程序开始执行时发生一次内存分配。内存在程序执行中保持分配状态,在程序执行完之前,内存不重新分配。

改译:静态分配通常当程序开始执行时分配一次内存。这部分内存在程序执行过程中一直分配给它,并且在该程序执行完之前不会收回。


Dynamic assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up Binding

Binding (converting symbolic addresses in the program to storage related addresses) that occurs during program execution.

原译:动态结合结合(将程序中的符号地址转换成存储相关地址)在程序执行中发生。

改译:动态连接在程序执行过程中进行的连接(将程序中的符号地址转换成相关的内存地址)。

Static Binding

Binding(converting symbolic addresses in the program to storage related addresses) that occurs during program compilation or linkage.

原译:静态结合结合(将程序中的符号地址转换成存储相关地址)在程序编译或联接期间发生。

改译:静态连接在程序编译或链接期间进行的连接(将程序中的符号地址转换成相关的内存地址)。


Dynamic assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up Relocation

The relocation in memory of data or of the code of a currently running program by an internal system routine.

原译:动态再定位由内部系统例行程序对内存数据或正运行的编码进行再定位。

改译:动态重定位系统内部例行程序重新确定数据或运行中的程序代码在内存中的位置。


练习四 assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up

一、请将下列英文句子翻译成中文。

1. Many factors are considered in addition to the number of records to be stored; the speed with which an average-length list can be searched and the time needed to compute the list number for an account are two possible factors to be taken into account.

除了要考虑存储的记录数目之外,还要考虑许多的因素,例如平均长度的列表被搜索的速度以及计算一个账户的明细表数目所需要的时间就是两个可能要考虑的因素。


2. assigning the unique strings of numbers that make up The collection of everything, it turns out, cannot be considered a set without destroying the logical structure of mathematics. To avoid this and other problems, which need not concern us here, we will assume that for each discussion there is a universal set U (which will vary with the discussion) containing all objects for which the discussion is meaningful.

如果所有东西的汇总被认为是一个集合的话,那将会破坏数学的逻辑结构。为了避免这一点和出现与我们无关的其他问题,我们将假定对于每个讨论,都有一个全集U(它将随讨论的问题不同而变化),这个集合由所有使讨论有意义的对象所组成。


3. Some of the most important sets arise in connection with sequences. A sequence is simply a list of objects in order: a first element, second element, third element, and so on.

一些最重要的集合都与序列有关。一个序列只不过是由按次序排列的一些对象所组成的列表:第一个元素、第二个元素、第三个元素,如此等等。


4. sequences. A sequence is simply a list of objects in order: a first element, second element, third element, and so on.Virtually all mathematical theorems are composed of implications of the type

(P1 P2… Pn)  Q

To “prove the theorem” means to show that the implication is a tautology. The proof does not show that Q is true, but simply shows that Q has to be true if the Pi are all true.

实际上,所有的数学定理都是由下面形式的蕴涵式组成:

(P1 P2… Pn)  Q

“证明这个定理”就是要证明这个蕴涵式是一个重言式。我们不是要证明Q是真的,而是要证明当所有的Pi为真时,Q必为真。


5. There are two well-defined limits on an answer to a query in an incomplete information database: the definite answer and the possible answer [Lip79]. The definite answer is the information that satisfies the query in all possible extensions of the database while the possible answer is the information that satisfies the query in some possible extension of the database.

在对不完全信息数据库查询时,有两种明确不同的答案:确定性答案和可能性答案[Lip79]。确定性答案是在数据库所有可能的扩展下都能满足查询的信息;而可能性答案是在数据库某些可能的扩展下能满足查询的信息。


6. By a set we mean any collection of objects, either physical objects or mental objects.

集合是指任何对象的汇总,这些对象可以是物理的对象,也可以是抽象的对象。

7.The graph corresponding to a map is planar, meaning that it can be drawn in a plane so that no edges cross except at vertices.

与一个地图对应的图叫做平面图,这意味着这个图可以画在一个平面上,使得所有的边除了在顶点外不会相交。


8. The user interface design should take into account the capabilities and background of the intended system users and should be tailored accordingly.

用户界面的设计应该考虑要使用这个系统的用户的能力与知识背景,并对设计进行相应的裁剪。

9. The specification of a generic array with operations to create the array, discover the lower and upper bounds, find the value of an array element and assign a value to an array element is set out in Figure 8.3.

在图8.3中给出了一个普通数组的规格说明,该说明中包括创建数组、找出它的上下界、求一个数组元素的值以及为一个数组元素赋值等操作。


10. One way of looking at non-functional requirements is as a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.

考虑非功能需求的一种方法是把它们看成是确定系统的性质和系统运作所要受的约束。例如,系统的可靠性、响应时间和占用的存储空间便属于系统的性质。而系统中I/O设备的性能,以及我们所需要的这个系统必须与之通信的其他系统所使用的数据表示的方法,就属于系统的约束。


11. a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.Schoman and Ross (1977) define the functional architecture of a system to be a description of the activities performed by the system and the interacting entities within the system.

Schoman 和Ross (1977) 将一个系统的功能结构定义为对该系统执行的活动以及在该系统内的交互实体的描述。

12. The problems of simulation, however, are highlighted by Davis and Vick (1977). They point out that, for complex systems, it can be as expensive and as time consuming to develop the system simulator as it is to develop the system itself.

然而,Davis 和Vick (1977) 已经重点研究了模拟的问题。他们指出,对于复杂的系统,开发一个系统的模拟器所花的钱和时间将与开发这个系统本身一样多。


  • 二、将下列术语或短语翻译成中文。 a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.

  • error recovery

  • parity function

  • video on demand

  • collision detection

  • protocol layering

  • architectural model

  • packet switching

  • enterprise network

  • protocol suite

  • commercial backbone


11.   a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.high-definition TV

12.   frame relay

13.   data rate

14.   metropolitan area network

15.   set-top box

16.   multi-mode fiber

17.   protocol stack

18.  VPI (virtual path identifier)

19.   broadband connection

20.   confidential information


21.   a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.public key system

22.   information superhighway

23.   switched internetwork

24.   carrier sense

25.   spanning tree

26.   UNI (user network interface)

27.   campus network

28.   diskless workstation

29.   group scheduling

30.   DUN (Dial-Up Networking)


31.   a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.intelligent hub

32.   packet delivery

33.   IP datagram

34.   security hole

35.   system crash

36.   HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

37.   SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

38.   header checksum

39.   full-duplex transmission

40.   ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)


41.   a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.transmission scheme

42.  hypermedia document

43.  FTP (File Transmission Protocol)

44.  dedicated access

45.  ISP (Internet Service Provider)

46.  WWW (World Wide Web)

47.  URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

48.  TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

49.  plain text

50.  message transfer agent


难 句 会 诊 a definition of system properties and constraints under which the system must operate. Examples of system properties are its reliability, its response time and its store occupancy. Examples of constraints are the capabilities of the I/O devices attached to the system and the data representations used by other systems with which the required system must communicate.

《科技英语学习》1996年第2期

You really can’t leave home without credit cards. It is interesting and somewhat infuriating(令人发怒) to discover that bad credit is better than no credit at all: I was refused a Visa card on the ground that I did not have a credit profile. Speaking of credit cards, we are bemused(困惑的) by the relatively new fad(时尚) of destroying the carbons(复写纸). Back in Europe, people prefer to keep their fingers clean.


译文:你没有信用卡就真难以离开家门。说来有趣,也真有点让人不悦,你会发现信用差要比没有信用更好。因为我被拒领维萨卡,就是因为我缺乏信用背景材料。说到信用卡,我们对这里撕毁信用卡复写件的较时髦的做法感到茫然。在欧洲那边,人们不会去撕毁信用卡复写件而弄脏自己的手指。译文:你没有信用卡就真难以离开家门。说来有趣,也真有点让人不悦,你会发现信用差要比没有信用更好。因为我被拒领维萨卡,就是因为我缺乏信用背景材料。说到信用卡,我们对这里撕毁信用卡复写件的较时髦的做法感到茫然。在欧洲那边,人们不会去撕毁信用卡复写件而弄脏自己的手指。

说明:credit profile指一个人(经济)信用(度)的背景材料;carbons指使用信用卡消费时一式两份的单据的复印张(即第二张),因复印张上也有信用卡的密码,因生怕复印张落到他人之手后泄密而引出不必要的麻烦,故即撕毁,而复印张上的蓝色极易染在手指上,句末的people prefer to keep their fingers clean的意思是not destroy the carbons,也许借此说明在欧洲人们对于使用信用卡更具安全感。

据我看,这句话的难点在于信用卡及其使用的知识。

武汉晓迪


  • 读者方思行的来信译文:你没有信用卡就真难以离开家门。说来有趣,也真有点让人不悦,你会发现信用差要比没有信用更好。因为我被拒领维萨卡,就是因为我缺乏信用背景材料。说到信用卡,我们对这里撕毁信用卡复写件的较时髦的做法感到茫然。在欧洲那边,人们不会去撕毁信用卡复写件而弄脏自己的手指。

  • 《科技英语学习》1996年第8期

  • 尊敬的编者:

    • 我是一名英语爱好者,对于贵刊今年的栏目调整十分关注与赞成。贵刊在1995年第11期的“难句会诊”上刊登了一篇有关信用卡的征译文章,并在1996年第2期发表了武汉晓迪读者的译文。拜读后不敢苟同,特提出本人的一些看法以作商榷。

    • 我觉得要弄懂原文的意思,首先必须弄清楚信用卡的作用。在西方国家兴起的信用卡制度与我国目前正在开始普及的银行提款卡是完全不同的两种东西。它的初衷是为了鼓励消费,而且是超前消费,用一句通俗的话来说就是“先花未来钱”。这种制度对于经济的发展起着一定的促进作用,但是也不能不看到它的负面影响。一部分人,特别是许多青年人,不惜负债累累而沉湎于高消费之中,造成崇尚享乐、不图进取的社会风气。因此,人们对于信用卡的看法褒贬不一。我个人认为,原文正是反映了作者对美国人生活中这一现象焦虑和矛盾的心情。


有了上述基本的看法,对于译文:你没有信用卡就真难以离开家门。说来有趣,也真有点让人不悦,你会发现信用差要比没有信用更好。因为我被拒领维萨卡,就是因为我缺乏信用背景材料。说到信用卡,我们对这里撕毁信用卡复写件的较时髦的做法感到茫然。在欧洲那边,人们不会去撕毁信用卡复写件而弄脏自己的手指。credit这个词我们就可以有更加准确的理解。在《朗文现代英语双解词典》中,credit被解释为“信用”、“信任”,而英文的本意是“the quality of being likely to repay debts and be honest with money”,即这里所说的“信用”是专指“赊帐、欠债能按时清还”的意思。因此,“bad credit”与“no credit at all”不应简单地译为“信用差”与“没有信用”。这种译法在汉语里除了在语气上有一点点差别外,几乎可以认为是相同的。例如,我们可以用“他这个人信用差”或者“他这个人没有信用”来表达同一个观点。正确的译法应该将“bad credit”译为“赊帐不还”,“no credit at all”译为“从不赊帐”,这样你才能理解作者为什么会对现实中的这种反常现象觉得“又好笑又可气”,同时明白后面的 “credit profile”是指“赊帐记录”。


晓迪读者把原文的最后两句照字面译出,且不说用信用卡消费(俗称“碌卡”)时单据的复印张上根本没有密码(本人在国外学习时使用过信用卡)、谈不上什么保密;而且这种译法完全看不出一个完整段落的上下文关系。依本人理解,作者所说的美国人喜欢将晓迪读者把原文的最后两句照字面译出,且不说用信用卡消费(俗称“碌卡”)时单据的复印张上根本没有密码(本人在国外学习时使用过信用卡)、谈不上什么保密;而且这种译法完全看不出一个完整段落的上下文关系。依本人理解,作者所说的美国人喜欢将carbons(单据复印张)撕毁是暗喻他们对“先花未来钱”内心十分坦然,并且不愿意面对一大摞的赊帐帐单。而欧洲人在此问题上则比较谨慎,保留的赊帐帐单会提醒他们当心消费陷饼。所以,最后这两句意译为好,否则读者很难理解作者的本意。

下面试给出译文:“没有信用卡你实在寸步难行。可是,当你得知赊帐不还竟比从不赊帐要好时,你会感到又好笑又可气:我曾经被拒领Visa信用卡,原因是我没有赊帐记录。讲到信用卡,我们真不知道近来撕毁信用卡赊帐帐单、自欺欺人的超前消费新时尚究竟是好还是坏。而在欧洲,人们较注重量入而出,不会为撕毁帐单而弄脏自己的手指。”


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