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Trends in Pharmacy Education: Implications for New Faculty Members. Victor A Yanchick, PhD Professor and Dean School of Pharmacy Virginia Commonwealth University 2008-2009 AACP President. Outline. Characteristics of the pharmacy education enterprise.

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trends in pharmacy education implications for new faculty members

Trends in Pharmacy Education: Implications for New Faculty Members

Victor A Yanchick, PhD

Professor and Dean

School of Pharmacy

Virginia Commonwealth University

2008-2009 AACP President

outline
Outline
  • Characteristics of the pharmacy education enterprise.
  • Diversity of pharmacy schools and colleges.
  • Issues and challenges in academic pharmacy – looking to the future.
  • Characteristics of pharmacy faculty.
  • Why would you want to join academic pharmacy?
  • Choosing your first academic home – the next step.
characteristics of the pharmacy education enterprise
Characteristics of the Pharmacy Education Enterprise
  • Approximately 106 schools / colleges (some in preliminary stages of accreditation).
  • Accreditation by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education is essential for licensure.
  • Zero to seven schools per state.
  • Many new schools.
  • Many existing schools are expanding class sizes or developing satellite campuses.
  • All award the Doctor of Pharmacy as the only entry-level degree for practicing pharmacists.
slide4

From: SK Gershon, JM Cultice, KK Knapp, “How Many Pharmacists are in our Fulture.” www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/phpharm/howmany.html presented at ASHP June 5, 2000

diversity of colleges and schools pharmacy
Diversity of Colleges and Schools Pharmacy
  • 42% are part of Academic Health Centers.
  • Some have academic health centers associated with their university at a distant campus (e.g., U. Texas, U. Georgia, Purdue, U. Connecticut)
  • Several are associated with osteopathic medical schools.
  • Some are associated with larger comprehensive universities.
  • Some are stand alone (e.g., St. Louis College of Pharmacy, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy).
diversity of colleges and schools pharmacy7
Diversity of Colleges and Schools Pharmacy
  • Public (state funded) and private.
  • Urban and rural and in-between.
  • Four year PharmD, Six year PharmD starting from high school, and 3-year accelerated year-round programs.
  • Some institutions are research-intensive and some are more teaching-intensive.
  • Class sizes range from 30 to 250 students.
  • Some are at institutions that are Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs).
  • Some are parts of institutions sponsored by specific religions.
issues and challenges in pharmacy education
Issues and Challenges in Pharmacy Education
  • Expansion to meet the pharmacist shortage
  • Implementation of Institute of Medicine objectives to improve health care
  • Curriculum changes to meet CAPE outcomes
  • Faculty recruitment and retention
  • Assessment
evidence of a continuing pharmacist shortage
Evidence of a continuingpharmacist shortage:
  • Estimated need for pharmacists to fulfill care and distributive roles in 2020 is 417,000; shortfall in supply estimated at 157,000(Knapp, DA, Am J Pharm Ed 2002;66:421-9)
  • Aggregate Demand Index continues to show imbalance between supply and demand

(Knapp, KK, http://www.pharmacymanpower.com)

  • Pharmacists report “excessively high” workload(Schommer, et al. J Am. Pharm. Assoc. 2006:340-7)
  • Number of elderly will double from 2000-2030; # of prescriptions per patient is markedly higher for those over 65.
can we meet the demand
Can we meet the demand?
  • There are sufficient qualified applicants.
  • Experiential education is a major limiting resource (Is the disseminated model of experiential education the optimal model? What can be done with simulation? How can we support practitioners so they continue to be willing to be educators? How do we improve the quality of practices where our students are educated?)
  • Faculty members (full time and adjunct or volunteer are another limiting resource).
  • Many models of distance education are being implemented and assessed.
issues and challenges in pharmacy education11
Issues and Challenges in Pharmacy Education
  • Expansion to meet the pharmacist shortage
  • Implementation of Institute of Medicine objectives to improve health care
  • Curriculum changes to meet CAPE outcomes
  • Faculty recruitment and retention
  • Assessment
can we be part of the healthcare improvement solution
Can we be part of the healthcare improvement solution?
  • Healthcare in this country is uncoordinated, not patient-focused, inefficient and expensive.
  • IOM has recommended that health care become:
    • Patient-centered (coordinated, integrated)
    • Team-delivered (interprofessional)
    • Evidence-based
    • Informatics-supported
    • Safer; more efficient and more effective
    • Engaged in continuous quality improvement
the cape outcomes and acpe suggest similar curricular focus
The CAPE outcomes and ACPE suggest similar curricular focus.
  • Pharmaceutical care
  • Systems management
  • Public Health
issues and challenges in pharmacy education14
Issues and Challenges in Pharmacy Education
  • Expansion to meet the pharmacist shortage
  • Implementation of Institute of Medicine objectives to improve health care
  • Curriculum changes to meet CAPE outcomes
  • Faculty recruitment and retention
  • Assessment
type of appointment
Type of Appointment

Majority of pharmacy faculty are on full-time, calendar-year appointments

faculty gender diversity
Faculty Gender Diversity

1991-92 Full-time faculty

2007-08 Full-time faculty

three kinds of faculty members
Three kinds of faculty members
  • Basic, translational, and clinical pharmaceutical scientists.
  • Practice faculty.
  • Social and administrative pharmacy.
discipline 2007 2008 full time faculty
Discipline 2007-2008 Full-time faculty
  • Pharmacy Practice 2294
  • Pharmacology/Biological Sciences 643
  • Pharmaceutics 533
  • Medicinal Chemistry 524
  • Social/Admin Sciences 342
  • Continuing Education 42
  • Libraries/Educ Resources 26
  • Liberal Arts 21
what do they have in common
What do they have in common?
  • They all teach pharmacy students.
  • They all engage in scholarly work or research.
  • They all publish their work.
  • They all participate in service activities.
  • They all are experts in their fields.
  • The balance of teaching/research/service and the expectations placed upon them will vary with the mission of the school and the university
how do they differ
How do they differ?
  • Type and length of post-PharmD education and training.
  • Practice and patient care responsibilities for some and not others.
  • Educate residents and fellows vs graduate students.
  • Focus of research; amount of research activity expected.
  • Teaching in the classroom vs teaching in the practice setting.
practice faculty
Practice Faculty
  • PharmD  Residency (general; 1 year specialty) or additional practice experience. Some research training (exposure)  faculty position. Pharmacy practice is a significant portion of their job.
  • Clinician-educator model accepted; usually non-tenure track.
  • Practice faculty and practitioners alike are developing new modes or models of practice; need to document, assess impact on patient care outcomes and publish. 
faculty are change agents
Faculty are change agents.
  • Requires pharmacists who are competent and confident in their skills and abilities.
  • Requires pharmacists who understand how to lead change and engage in continuous quality improvement.
  • Requires growth and maturation obtained through residencies or very significant life experiences.
issues and challenges in pharmacy education24
Issues and Challenges in Pharmacy Education
  • Expansion to meet the pharmacist shortage
  • Implementation of Institute of Medicine objectives to improve health care
  • Curriculum changes to meet CAPE outcomes
  • Faculty recruitment and retention
  • Assessment: Measure our graduates performance and the impact of the curriculum.
issues in assessment
Issues in assessment
  • How do we achieve excellence in all programs? How do we define excellence? How do we measure and document our students’ performance and skills?
  • ACPE is under pressure from the Department of Education to develop more standardized assessments.
  • Progress exams? To assess individual and/or institutional performance?
  • Outcome exams? (should a standard Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) be required prior to licensure?)
what s good about being a faculty member
What’s good about being a faculty member?
  • The ability to impact the future of the profession or your discipline nationally and internationally.
  • A wide variety of opportunities, including travel.
  • Students are fun and challenging and keep you intellectually young.
  • You are constantly learning new things and can change your focus over time; sabbaticals!
  • You have freedom to choose your interests and to choose how you spend each day, within the mission of the school.
  • It is the BEST job in all of pharmacy!
attributes of a successful faculty member
Attributes of a successful faculty member
  • A passion for teaching.
  • A passionate interest in one’s research or practice area; a desire to improve practice.
  • Communication skills (oral and writing).
  • Interpersonal skills.
  • Independence and self-direction…combined with a willingness to work with others.
  • A strong work ethic and the ability to balance one’s life.
  • Excellent post-Pharm.D. education and research training – be prepared; don’t rush it!
go for it
Go for it!

My advice: Try it out by getting some teaching experience as a resident; and then….