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Chapter 19 Notes: Part II. Acid/Base Theories. There are three ways to define acids and bases. This reflects the fact that science is always revising itself. 1) Arrhenius Acids/Bases. An acid is a chemical that gives off hydrogen ions in solution.

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Chapter 19 Notes: Part II


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chapter 19 notes part ii

Chapter 19 Notes: Part II

Acid/Base Theories

slide2
There are three ways to define acids and bases.
  • This reflects the fact that science is always revising itself.
1 arrhenius acids bases
1) Arrhenius Acids/Bases
  • An acid is a chemical that gives off hydrogen ions in solution.
  • A base is a chemical that gives off hydroxide ions in solution.

Example: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

**BASICALLY…acids start with H+ and bases end with OH-!!!

arrhenius acids bases
Arrhenius Acids/Bases

There are three ways to describe an acid:

  • Monoprotic-gives off one H+ in sol’n
  • Diprotic-gives off two H+
  • Triprotic-gives off three H+
bronsted lowry acids bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids/Bases
  • The Arrhenius definition is a good one, but does not encompass everything that shows acidic/basic qualities.
  • To account for this, Johannes Bronstedand Thomas Lowryproposed a new idea.
2 bronsted lowry acids bases
2) Bronsted-Lowry Acids/Bases
  • An acid is a hydrogen-ion (proton) donor.
  • A base is a hydrogen-ion (proton) acceptor.
conjugate acids bases
Conjugate Acids/Bases
  • A conjugate acid is the particle that is formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.
  • A conjugate base is the particle that is formed when an acid donates a hydrogen ion.
conjugate acids bases1
Conjugate Acids/Bases
  • A conjugate acid/base pair consist of two substances related by the loss of a single hydrogen ion.
nh 3 h 2 o nh 4 oh
NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-

proton donator

  • Which is the initial acid?
  • Which is the initial base?
  • What is the conjugate acid?
  • What is the conjugate base?

H2O

NH3

NH4+

OH-

proton acceptor

formed after base gains H+

formed after acid donates H+

hcl h 2 o h 3 o cl
HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-
  • Which is the initial acid?
  • Which is the initial base?
  • What is the conjugate acid?
  • What is the conjugate base?

HCl

H2O

H3O+

Cl-

amphoteric substances
Amphoteric Substances
  • Note that in one of the previous examples H2O was acidic and basic in the other.
  • A substance that can act as an acid or a base is called amphoteric.
3 lewis acids bases
3) Lewis Acids/Bases
  • A Lewis acid is a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
  • A Lewis base is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to a covalent bond.
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**MUST draw Lewis dot structures to determine whether a compound will gain or lose e-!!!

  • Ex… BF3 + NH3

F3BNH3

ACID

(not happy)

accept e- pair

BASE

(happy)

donate e- pair