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Designing a Housing Microfinance Loan Product. Lending Systems and Procedures (Based on RBAP-MABS HMF Generic Manual). The Microfinance Loan Process. 1) Loan Promotion & Application. 2) Client Selection (Loan Analysis). 3) Loan Approval. 6) Loan Collection/ Monitoring. 5) Loan Release.

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slide1

Designing a Housing Microfinance Loan Product

Lending Systems and Procedures

(Based on RBAP-MABS HMF Generic Manual)

slide2

The Microfinance Loan Process

1) Loan Promotion

& Application

2) Client Selection

(Loan Analysis)

3) Loan Approval

6) Loan Collection/

Monitoring

5) Loan Release

4) Loan Documentation

loan procedures points to bear in mind
Loan Procedures: Points to Bear in Mind
  • Marketing: AOs & bank officers/staff reach out to prospective borrowers
  • Loan Application: Simple, one to two pages.
  • Loan Analysis: Based on client’s character and cash flow
  • Loan Approval: Decentralized.
  • Loan Documentation & Disbursement: Fast loan release
  • Follow-up & Collection: Strict adherence to zero tolerance approach. Restructuring only allowed in exceptional cases
lending procedures promotion
Lending Procedures:Promotion
  • Reach out to the communities and visit potential clients in their workplace (home, office or businesses).
  • Organize orientation sessions at Barangays.
  • Entertain walk-in clients
  • Distribute brochures
  • Caravan/Road Show
lending procedures promotion1
Lending ProceduresPromotion
  • Due to increasing competition, AOs must adopt aggressive marketing strategies
  • Promotion is not a substitute for high quality services
  • The best and least expensive promotion a credit program could have is that of a satisfied client: Word of mouth
lending procedures promotion2
Lending ProceduresPromotion
  • How to find a market for the product:
    • Existing bank clients

Incentive for good performance for group and or individual loan clients.

- New clients

Lodging/boarding houses near schools or business districts.

lending procedures loan application
Lending Procedures:Loan Application
  • The loan application is simple (one page). The AO fills out the application with the client
  • Most of the information in the application for first loans assess the client’s “character” [stability, entrepreneurship, reputation, and repayment behavior – (SERR)]
  • Most of the information for repeat loans refers to repayment behavior regarding past loans as well as the trend in savings
lending procedures loan analysis first loan
Lending Procedures: LOAN ANALYSIS-First Loan
  • Character/Risk assessment: analysis of client’s Stability, Entrepreneurship, Reputation, and Repayment behavior (SERR in CIBI for first loan)
  • Cash flow: repayment capacity based on all household income from business activities and others (including salaries, pensions and remittances).
lending procedures loan analysis repeat loan
Lending Procedures: LOAN ANALYSIS-Repeat Loan

Analysis of Repeat Loans are based on:

  • Repayment behavior of previous loans
  • Results of monitoring visits to determine changes/ potential problems in the client’s situation
  • Cash flow to determine repayment capacity and possible increases in loan amounts
lending procedures loan analysis repeat loan1
Lending Procedures: LOAN ANALYSIS-Repeat Loan
  • A cash flow analysis may be done every other loan ONLY IF repeat loan amount is
    • the same or within 10% increase
    • not more than P25,000
    • loan term is 6 months or less, and
    • client has not made payments with delay of not more than 3 days.
  • If a borrower does not meet these qualifications, a cash flow analysis has to be done for every loan.
lending procedures loan collection
Lending Procedures:Loan Collection

Strict adherence to the Zero Tolerance approach:

Banks must have well-defined collection policies that clearly guide AOs on appropriate actions to take.

THE ALARM SIGNALS.

  • Alarm Signal No. 1: (delayed by 1 day) - AO contacts the client within 24 hours; Reports non-payment to Supervisor; Prepares memo to file; reports during weekly committee meeting.
lending procedures loan collection1
Lending Procedures:Loan Collection
  • Alarm Signal No. 2 (Delayed payment by 3 days) --AO and Supervisor delivers 1st collection letter signed by BM (cc: co-maker or co-borrower); Supervisor stresses importance of payments:
  • ** eligibility for re-availments
  • ** avoidance of penalty fees/charges
  • Alarm Signal Nol 3 (Delayed payment by 1 week)– BM accompanies the AO to the client and handles 2nd demand letter
lending procedures loan collection2
Lending Procedures:Loan Collection
  • BM stresses: (a) client will loose privilege to borrow again, and (b) bank will enforce VOS or CHM
  • Alarm Signal No. 4 (delayed payment by 2 weeks) – AO delivers 3rd and final letter; BM visits borrower and stress that his/her name will be included in the negative data bank/blacklist
loan collection
Loan Collection
  • Alarm Signal No. 5 (payment is delayed by 3 weeks) – Either the AO, Supervisor or the BM warns the borrower of legal action if unpaid within 1 week
  • Alarm Signal No. 6 (payment is delayed by 4 weeks) – AO & Supervisor recommends to BM the debiting of O/B of loan from client’s contractual savings
  • AO informs borrower of the debiting process
  • For unpaid balance, legal counsel takes over collection (extra-judicial or judicial)
slide16

The MABS program is implemented by the of the Rural Bankers Association of the Philippines. It receives funding support from the U.S. Agency for International Development with oversight provided by the Office of the President and the Mindanao Economic Development Council.

Rural Bankers Association of the Philippines

Mindanao Economic Development Council

Office of the President of the Philippines

U.S. Agency for International Development

The general contractor is Chemonics International, Inc.

These materials were made possible through the support provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development/Philippines under the terms of contract no. 492-C-00-98-0008-00. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agency for International Development.