Electronic Records Management with Technologies. Outline. Databases and Data Warehouse Collating Sequence Issues Electronic Record Management Storage Media Technologies Record Imaging. Using Databases. Using Databases. Databases are organized for rapid search and retrieval
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Outline Databases and Data Warehouse Collating Sequence Issues Electronic Record Management Storage Media Technologies Record Imaging
Using Databases Databases are organized for rapid search and retrieval (Relational) Databases have objects: Tables (store data) Forms Queries Reports
Database Table (MS Access) Fields are arranged in columns Records are arranged in rows
Finding Information in DB Use the Find feature Can be used on any field Partial names can be used Query by Example (QBE) Choose fields Choose sorting order: ascending or descending Structured Query Language (SQL)
Relations and Multi-table Query Real power of relational DB …
Example DB Schema Unified Modeling Language Class Diagram notation
Databases and E-Commerce HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the language browsers interpret and display. Web Server receives instructions from coding on the form. The coding opens the database and returns or adds information to it.
Data Warehouses Data warehouse: Stores data used to make decisions Obtained periodically from transaction databases Snapshot of situation at specific time Different from operational databases Customer data is most common type of data housed Corporate use transcends reporting internal data to business intelligence today
Data Warehouses (2) Metadata The part of the warehouse that defines the data Explains meaning of each data element and sets standards e.g. to reconcile data from legacy systems Quality data The cleaning process to adhere to metadata standards The older the data the more suspect its quality Datamart A subset of data pulled off the warehouse for a specific group of users Faster search time and lower costs
Data Warehouses (3) Five steps in a data warehousing project: Define the business uses of the data Create the data model for the warehouse Cleanse the data to ensure data quality Select the user tools Monitor usage and system performance
How Computers Sort Text Data Character Standards The first 128 characters of the possible 256 are assigned specific numeric values. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Values Chart lists the value for spaces, symbols, number and lowercase and uppercase letter.
Usage Note 1: Case Sensitivity Many computer applications ignore upper and lowercase letters. Default settings for Word and Excel treat the letters the same whether lower or uppercase.
Usage Note 2: Extended ASCII Characters Due to the original IBM PC Different code pages for different languages English ordering ignore diacritics (é ê ë è )
Usage Note 3: Collating Sequence of Other Countries Diacritics marks over and around letters For sorting purposes the characters may be considered to be the same letter in most languages. English, French, German May be treated as different letters in some other languages. Turkish dictionaries treat o and ö as different letters, and oyun comes before öbür. Similiary, Digraph (e.g. ß = ss in German) or Trigraph treated as either multiple letters (majority) or one letter in different languages. In several languages the rules have changed over time. older dictionaries may use a different order than modern ones. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collating_sequence
Using Unicode Unicode Worldwide Character Standard International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO10646 4 byte (32 bit) per character Include all major characters set + 4,914 dialect characters approved by the Hong Kong government Char ISO10646 Big5
Applying Indexing Rules to Computer Applications Follow Rules 1–10 from Chapters 2–4 Key indexing units in mixed case with no punctuation Spell out all symbols Format numbers for proper sorting
Rule 5: Titles and Suffixes Numeric suffixes (I, II) are filed before alphabetic suffixes (CPA, Jr., Sr.).
Rule 7:Numbers in Business Names Numbers written as digits are keyed so that all numbers have an equal number of digits and align on the right. Add (adequate) leading zeros Another way: use numeric fields in DB
Electronic Record Life Cycle Create and Save Distribution and Use Maintenance Disposition
Creation and Storage Electronic files are created in applications. The file is created when it is saved with a filename and stored on a computer drive. Folder structure Broad and shallow Use meaningful names Filenames—use meaningful names
Use and Distribution Electronic documents distribution printed and sent through regular mail attached to an e-mail available on the organization’s intranet available on shared drive on the LAN published on Websites / blogs …
Maintenance Electronic files are maintained through Move Copy Back up Restore Synchronization problem PC and mobile devices (PDA / phone…) Home / office / laptop PC PC and servers / web / DB / host …
Disposition Electronic records disposition Data migration to archive Delete after retention period
Relationship Between Electronic and Image Records Electronic record—a record stored on electronic storage media that can be readily accessed or changed. A machine-readable record—digitized and coded information that must be translated by a computer or other equipment before it can be understood. Image record—a digital or photographic representation of a record on any medium such as microfilm or optical disk.
Electronic Media Magnetic media—magnetically coated materials used by computers for data storage. Optical media—high-density information storage medium where digitally encoded information is both written and read with a laser.
Magnetic Media Floppy disk or diskette Hard disk Magnetic tape Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) Videotape Removable / USB hard disk
Optical Media Read-Only, Record Once (-R), Read-Write (-RW) All removable from drive
Advantages of Removable Data Storage Devices Can be stored in locked cabinets, vaults, or other secure locations Can be used in other computer systems with compatible drives Can be used to back up conventional hard drives and to restore electronic records if a removable drive fails Can be used with an identical device if a removable drive fails
Data Input Computer keyboard Scanner Bar code scanner RFID scanner Optical character recognition (OCR) Fax machine Handheld devices Removable disks Mobile communication devices Push technology
Storage and Retrieval Procedures Indexing electronic records involves assigning identifier codes or filenames and using keywords, or using directories and subdirectories Retrieving involves identifying categories and subcategories of electronic records and directories and subdirectories where they may be stored
Label Information —Removable Data Storage Devices Department, unit, or organization that created the records Name of records series Inclusive dates, numeric series, or other identifying information Type of computer used to create the records Software name and version used to create the records
Label Information —Centralized Data Processing Facilities Complete listing of files contained on the medium Manufacture date for the medium Security precautions and access restrictions Type of copy—working or storage Any special attributes of the medium
Retention and Disposition Duplicate records Media compatibility and stability Access E-mail records Active records storage Inactive records storage and archives
Records Safety Adopt protective measures for hardware, software, and media Convert records on magnetic media to hard copy, optical disks, or microforms for long-term storage Protect against loss of files Take measures to prevent computer viruses
Records Security Security policy and checks Security measures Data protection Security for faxed documents E-mail retention policies