Unit iii machinery
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UNIT III MACHINERY. MAIN ENGINE. S team engines were used almost until 1900s. Later the steam turbine and the internal combustion engine replaced steam engines. Gas turbines have been used in merchant ships and navy.

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Unit iii machinery

UNIT IIIMACHINERY

MAIN ENGINE


  • Steam engines were used almost until 1900s.

  • Later the steam turbine and the internal combustion engine replaced steam engines.



Steam eng i ne
STEAM ENGINE

The steam engines convert heat energy into mechanical energy by using steam.


Steam engines operate by having superheated steam force a piston to reciprocate in a cylinder.


The piston is attached by a crosshead to a crankshaft that converts the reciprocating (back-and-forth) motion of the piston to rotary motion for propulsion.


In a steam engine, hot steam supplied by a boiler expands under pressure, and the heat energy is converted into work.


Steam turbine
STEAM TURBINE under pressure, and the heat energy is converted into work.

  • In the steam turbine, high pressure steam is discharged at high velocity through nozzles and then flows through a series of stationary and moving blades, causing a rotor to move at high speeds.





Internal combust i on eng i ne
INTERNAL COMBUST source in tankers.ION ENGINE

  • An internal combustion engine operates by burning its fuel inside the engine.

  • It converts chemical energy of the burning fuel into mechanical energy.


The common internal combustion engines are
The common internal combustion engines are source in tankers.;

  • gas turbine

  • diesel engine


The compression ignited internal combustion engine has two main designs
The compression ignited internal combustion engine has two main designs:

  • two stroke cycle

  • four stroke cycle



Two stroke cycle
TWO STROKE CYCLE main designs:


Four stroke cycle
FOUR STROKE CYCLE main designs:


D i esel eng i ne
D main designs:IESEL ENGINE

  • Diesel engine uses the heat produced by compression to ignite the mixture of air and diesel fuel.


Diesel engine appears in three types, main designs:

  • low-speed engine,

  • medium-speed engine

  • high-speed engine





Diesel engines are also of two types according to their pistons
Diesel engines are also of two types according to their pistons;

  • trunk piston

  • barrel piston


Trunk piston
Trunk piston pistons;


Barrel piston
Barrel piston pistons;





Gas turbine
GAS TURBINE the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder, not the amount of air admitted as in the gasoline engine.

Gas turbine engines are extremely simple and has three main parts;

  • a compressor to compress the incoming air to high pressure,

  • a combustion chamber to burn the fuel and produce high pressure and

  • a turbine to extract the energy from the high pressure, high velocity gas flowing from the combustion chamber



Answer the questions
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ships and supertankers because of the high power

1-What are the main types of engine?


2- ships and supertankers because of the high power How does an internal combustion engine work?


3 ships and supertankers because of the high power -What do the two stroke and four stroke terms refer to?


4 ships and supertankers because of the high power -Can you compare diesel engine with gas turbine?


Etymology
Etymology ships and supertankers because of the high power

  • Diesel<Rudolf Diesel, who is a German inventor, invented the diesel engine

  • Energy< Latin, energia <Greek, energeia, active, at work < en, in +ergon, work

  • Machine<Latin, machine <Greek, mechane, engine <Indo-European, magh, to be able to, may, might


Some words
SOME WORDS ships and supertankers because of the high power

Combustion (n)-Burning

Expand (v) -To become larger in size, volume or quantity

Ignite (v) -Start to burn or burst into flames


Reciprocate (v) - ships and supertankers because of the high power To move back and forth

Rotary (n) -Occurring around an axis

Rotate (v) -Turn around an axis

Velocity (n) -Speed


Complete the diagram showing diesel engine types
Complete the diagram showing diesel engine types. ships and supertankers because of the high power


B complete the definitions using the words below
B- Complete the definitions using the words below. ships and supertankers because of the high power

Internal combustion engine / boiler / compressor / crankshaft / diesel engine

1- A…………….is a device that supplies hot steam for steam engine.

2- A…………… is a device that converts the back-and-forth motion of the piston to rotary motion for propulsion

3- ………………is an engine type that converts chemical energy of the burning fuel into mechanical energy.

4- A ……………is an engine that uses the heat produced by compression.

5-A………….…is a device that compresses the incoming air to high pressure


1 what statement is not true regarding the steam engines
1 ships and supertankers because of the high power -What statement is not true regarding the steam engines?

a. Steam engines uses steam.

b. Steam engines convert heat energy into work.

c. Piston rotates in a cylinder to reciprocate the crankshaft

d. Boilers supply hot steam.

e. Steam engines are not common.


1 what statement is not true regarding the steam engines1
1 ships and supertankers because of the high power -What statement is not true regarding the steam engines?

c. Piston rotates in a cylinder to reciprocate the crankshaft


1 which one is used for propulsion on ships
1-Which one is used for propulsion on ships? ships and supertankers because of the high power

a. steam engine

b. steam turbine

c.gas turbine

d.diesel engine

e.all


1 which one is used for propulsion on ships1
1-Which one is used for propulsion on ships? ships and supertankers because of the high power

e.all


3 combustion compression stroke the terms are related to
3-‘combustion, compression, stroke’. The terms are related to

a. steam turbine

b. turbine

c. boiler

d. internal combustion engine

e. reciprocating steam engine


3 combustion compression stroke the terms are related to1
3-‘combustion, compression, stroke’. The terms are related to

d. internal combustion engine


4 what does the term stroke refer to
4-What does the term ‘stroke’ refer to? related to

a. combustion

b. piston motion in the cylinder

c. ignition

d. compression

e. rotary motion


4 what does the term stroke refer to1
4-What does the term ‘stroke’ refer to? related to

b. piston motion in the cylinder


5 which is not a characteristic of diesel engines
5-Which is not a characteristic of diesel engines? related to

a. Diesel engines can be either trunk piston type or barrel piston type.

b. The ignition is caused by spark

c. They are heavier than gas turbines.

d. The power is controlled by varying the amount of injected fuel.

e. Diesel engines operate at various speeds such as low, medium or high.


5 which is not a characteristic of diesel engines1
5-Which is not a characteristic of diesel engines? related to

b. The ignition is caused by spark


6 which is not true about gas turbines
6-Which is not true about gas turbines? related to

a. Gas turbines have high maneuvering capability

b. They consist of compressor, turbine and combustion chamber

c. They are lighter than diesel engines

d. Their ignition is caused by spark

e. They are used at naval ships and supertankers.


6 which is not true about gas turbines1
6-Which is not true about gas turbines? related to

a. Gas turbines have high maneuvering capability

.


7 which is the most common propulsion engine for merchant ships
7-Which is the most common propulsion engine for merchant ships?

a. steam engine

b. steam turbine

c. gas turbine

d. nuclear power

e. diesel engine



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