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University of Limerick. Leaving Certificate Engineering Special Topic 2009. “Basic Principles, Operation and Application of Hybrid Vehicle Technology”. Authors : Dr. Seamus Gordon, Kevin Carey, Diarmaid Lane & Leonard Skinner Department of Manufacturing and Operations Engineering

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    1. University of Limerick

    2. Leaving Certificate Engineering Special Topic 2009 “Basic Principles, Operation and Application of Hybrid Vehicle Technology” Authors: Dr. Seamus Gordon, Kevin Carey, Diarmaid Lane & Leonard Skinner Department of Manufacturing and Operations Engineering University of Limerick

    3. Different ways of Powering Vehicles Fossil Fuels- The need for Change BASIC PRINCIPLES, OPERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY Hybrid Electric Technology Other Hybrid Technologies Analysis of the Toyota Prius

    4. The need for an alternative To better understand the harm which fossil fuels are doing to the environment, we must understand were they come from.

    5. The Carboniferous Period This period in prehistory lasted for 64 million years, ending 290 million years ago • The earth had a much warmer and wet climate during this period • The atmosphere contained much more carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) than it does today • The planet was filled with plant life and vegetation.

    6. Fossil Fuels • Dead plants fell to the ground and became buried during the carboniferous period. These plants became compressed under layers of earth and rock for millions of years. • The carbon which these plants were made from also became buried, and the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere significantly reduced.

    7. The Burning of Fossil Fuels • We release the carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere • During combustion and the burning of fossil fuels, we use up some of the oxygen within the atmosphere. Candle experiment

    8. Carbon Dioxide in our Atmosphere-the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ • The primary reason for the carboniferous period being warm and wet was the abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere. • Carbon dioxide traps the heat from the sun, allowing the heat to penetrate through to the planet but restricting it from leaving. • By releasing the carbon back into the atmosphere we are trapping more heat in our atmosphere, effectively changing the climate of the planet which we live in.

    9. Carbon Dioxide in our Atmosphere-the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ • The primary reason for the carboniferous period being warm and wet was the abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere. • Carbon dioxide traps the heat from the sun, allowing the heat to penetrate through to the planet but restricting it from leaving. • By releasing the carbon back into the atmosphere we are trapping more heat in our atmosphere, effectively changing the climate of the planet which we live in.

    10. Problems due to the Burning of Fossil Fuels • Climate change Increasing levels of CO2 in the environment is leading to a warmer, wetter and more volatile climate. This is forcing many changes all around the planet

    11. Problems due to the Burning of Fossil Fuels • Climate change Increasing levels of CO2 in the environment is leading to a warmer, wetter and more volatile climate. This is forcing many changes all around the planet

    12. Problems due to the Burning of Fossil Fuels • Reducing Oxygen As we burn fossil fuels, we deprive the planet of the oxygen which was created during the carboniferous period. We need oxygen to breathe.

    13. Problems due to the Burning of Fossil Fuels • Wasting a Raw Material Oil and coal are used as raw materials for plastics, medicines, clothing, consumer goods etc. once it is gone, it cannot be replaced.

    14. Problems due to the Burning of Fossil Fuels • Oil Demand • The world is approaching the point where the oil deposits being discovered cannot meet the ever increasing demand. Scarcity of oil will result in huge price increases for oil and oil based products.

    15. Motorised transport • One of the biggest users of fossil fuels is in transport. Cars, lorries, trains and aeroplanes all use a vast amount of fuel, draining the supply available to us. • A recent study in Germany estimated that 60% of the countries total CO2 output was due to transport.

    16. Motorised transport It is estimated that in traditional vehicles, only 15% of the energy extracted from the fossil fuel is used to move the vehicle, or run accessories such as air conditioning and power steering. Energy is lost to; • Heat loss from engine • Noise • Engine running while idle • Braking

    17. Different ways of Powering Vehicles • Petrol / Diesel fuelled vehicles • Electric Vehicles (EV) • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) • Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) • Alternative Fuels

    18. Different ways of Powering Vehicles • Petrol / Diesel fuelled vehicles These vehicles are powered entirely by burning a fossil fuel in an internal combustion engine

    19. Different ways of Powering Vehicles • Electric Vehicles (EV) Rely solely on electric energy to power the vehicle. The Dart and the Luas, powered from the national grid, regarded as being clean.

    20. Different ways of Powering Vehicles • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) Get 100% of their energy from fuel such as petrol or diesel. Some of the energy produced is recycled and charges a battery

    21. Different ways of Powering Vehicles • Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) These vehicles can be charged and powered separate to the internal combustion engine. they combine the advantages of both HEVs and EVs

    22. Different ways of Powering Vehicles Alternative Fuels • Biodiesel • Ethanol • Hydrogen

    23. Hybrid Electric Technology Types: • Series Not necessarily developed for increased efficiency

    24. Hybrid Electric Technology Types: • Parallel • Allows both the ICE and electric motor to power the vehicle together or separately • Allows the battery to be charged through regenerative braking and through the ICE

    25. Hybrid Electric Technology Key Components Useful animation at http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm

    26. Hybrid Electric Technology Internal Combustion Engine The ICE is generally smaller and lighter to help reduce the fuel consumption and emissions

    27. Hybrid Electric Technology Electric motor This has the ability to either energise the batteries, or draw energy from them. • During braking, it generates energy and stores it in the batteries • During acceleration, it can draw energy from the batteries and assist or replace the ICE Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles require separate generators

    28. Hybrid Electric Technology Fuel Tank Although the batteries are heavy, they have the ability to be recharged Batteries

    29. Toyota Prius – A Typical Hybrid Electric Vehicle Introduced in the USA in 1997 Worldwide production in 2001 Designed to reduce emissions in urban areas

    30. Toyota Prius – A Typical Hybrid Electric Vehicle Parallel Hybrid Power-train Speeds up to 24 km/h possible with electric motor

    31. What is Regenerative Braking?

    32. Toyota Prius – A Typical Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powering off the engine will reduce toxic emissions and power consumption

    33. Toyota Prius – A Typical Hybrid Electric Vehicle • 1.5 litre four stroke engine • Limited to 5000 rev/min • Reduced fossil fuel consumption • Lighter parts

    34. Toyota Prius – A Typical Hybrid Electric Vehicle • Power split device (planetary gear) drives vehicle using most efficient power source • Electric motor initiates take off from stationary position. • As acceleration increases, the power split device will transfer to the engine as main driving source. • Video: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car7.htm

    35. Plug in Hybrid Vehicles • Plug in Hybrid Vehicles • Combine hybrid technology with cheap, clean, domestic electricity. • Oil consumption and CO2 consumption will be reduced or eliminated • Retain the Internal Combustion Engine for long distances • Limitations of Conventional HEVs • Takes all of its energy from fossil fuels • Regenerative braking only recovers some of the dispensed energy

    36. Plug in Hybrid Vehicles – Modification of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle • Modification of charging system • Extra battery added for increased energy storage capacity • Charger added that can be plugged into mains electricity

    37. Plug in Hybrid Vehicles – Modification of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle • Modification of control system • Reprogramming required so that more electricity and less fuel is used for propulsion • Battery is utilised until almost depleted • Difficult to achieve due to existing control systems in hybrid electric vehicles • EDrive and Hybrids-Plus have made advancements in these technologies

    38. Ultimate Hybrid Technology Ultimate Hybrid Vehicle Technology uses sustainablefossil fuels (including ethanol and biodiesel) along with technologies that are currently being utilised

    39. Ethanol

    40. Ethanol • Renewable fuel made from “biomass” • Contains same chemical compound C2H5OH as found in alcoholic beverages • Suitable raw materials include any plant that has high sugar or starch content

    41. Production of Ethanol • Usually blended with petrol with around 85% ethanolcontent • Note: Feedstock used to produce ethanol competes with food crops for land use

    42. Biodiesel

    43. Biodiesel • Manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. • It is safe, biodegradable and produces less air pollutants than petroleum based diesel. • Can be used in its pure form or blended with diesel.

    44. Biodiesel • Biodegradable and non toxic. • Use of 100% biodiesel reduces fuel economy and power by 10%. • Creates 78% less CO2 emissions than conventional diesel fuel. • Reduces carcinogenic emissions by 94%. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/5044-invention-nation-biodiesel-video.htm

    45. Fuel Cell Vehicles • Electrochemical engine (no moving parts) • Fuel (such as Hydrogen) + Oxidant (such as Oxygen) Resulting in chemical energy and electricity • Electricity is used to power motors located near the vehicles wheels

    46. Fuel Cell Vehicles • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell • Electrolyte membrane sandwiched between cathode and anode. • Hydrogen introduced to anode and oxygen to the cathode • Hydrogen molecules travel towards the cathode but are stripped of electrons by membrane • Electrons flow through an external circuit in order to rejoin hydrogen ions at cathode. • This flow of electrons forms the electrical current required to power vehicle

    47. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.htm

    48. Fuel Cell Vehicles • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell • Can be fuelled with pure hydrogen stored directly on vehicle. • Alternatively, using secondary fuel such as ethanol or natural gas, which carry hydrogen. • Secondary fuels converted into hydrogen using on board reformer. • No pollutants emitted only heat and water.

    49. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles • Uses hydraulic fluid used to store and provide energy to power vehicle. • Alternative to batteries and electronics of hybrid vehicles. • Costs and power advantages over hybrid electric technology • Power achieved through regenerative braking. Fact: Worlds first hydraulic hybrid delivery truck...70% better fuel efficiency in urban driving and 40% lower CO2 greenhouse gas emissions