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SPSS 16 for Windows. A Course for Beginners Consultant: Betty Zou. Topics Covered. Getting Started Entering Data Analyzing Data (for beginners) Frequencies Descriptives Explore Crosstabs Sorting Data Selecting Cases Recoding Data Chart Builder. Getting Started (1). Compatibility:

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## SPSS 16 for Windows

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**SPSS 16 for Windows**A Course for Beginners Consultant: Betty Zou (CSSCR) Zou**Topics Covered**• Getting Started • Entering Data • Analyzing Data (for beginners) • Frequencies • Descriptives • Explore • Crosstabs • Sorting Data • Selecting Cases • Recoding Data • Chart Builder (CSSCR) Zou**Getting Started (1)**Compatibility: • SPSS 13 and 16 are mutually compatible • But some graphs/charts saved on SPSS 16 will not open on SPSS 13 At CSSCR, you can find SPSS 16 on the desktop SPSS 16 SPSS 13 (CSSCR) Zou**Getting Started (2)**Two windows Data editor window Output viewer window (CSSCR) Zou**Getting Started (3)**Data View Variables Toolbar Cases Data View (CSSCR) Zou**Getting Started (4)**Variable View Variable Characteristics Variables Variable View (CSSCR) Zou**Entering Data (1)**Set the characteristics of your variables • Type the name of the variable • Choose the type of variable • Automatically set on numeric, enter numbers only • String allows you to enter characters • Specify the width and decimals Name and type of variables (CSSCR) Zou**Entering Data (2)**• Insert value labels • 1.00 = Male • 2.00 = Female • Value labels will appear in output window Variable label and value label • Give your variables a descriptive label (CSSCR) Zou**Entering Data (3)**• Specify any missing values • Describe under value labels • 99 = Respondent refused to answer • 999 = Question did not apply • Important to flag for special treatment or excluded from calculations Missing Values (CSSCR) Zou**Entering Data (4)**• 3 kinds of measurement • Nominal and Ordinal: Data can be string or numeric, and are treated as categorical • Scale: Data must be numeric Variable Measurement (CSSCR) Zou**Entering Data (5)**• Click the value labels button to change between the number and the label Enter your data in Data View Notice the variable names are at the top (CSSCR) Zou**Descriptive Statistics**• The sample dataset we will use: world95.sav • File > open > data • c:/program files/SPSSInc/SPSS16/Samples/world95.sav • Available on the computers at CSSCR (CSSCR) Zou**Frequencies (1)**• You want to know the number of people/cases that gave the same response • Example: How many countries are Catholic? • Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies (CSSCR) Zou**Frequencies (2)**• A pop-up window will show variables on the left column • Choose the variable you want (religion) • Click the arrow to put it in the Variables box • Click OK (CSSCR) Zou**Frequencies (3)**• The frequency table shows up in the Output Viewer Frequency Table • Frequency: 41 countries are Catholic • Percent: Includes the missing response, 37.6% are Catholic • Valid Percent: Does not include the missing response, 38% are Catholic (CSSCR) Zou**A Note on the Output Viewer**The output viewer saves and prints as a separate document from the data editor. Outline pane: Helps manage the output contents. Click on any icon to go there in your viewer. Double click titles or tables to edit them. You can also copy and cut any item. (CSSCR) Zou**Descriptives (1)**• You want to know the mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, etc… • Variables should be scale and can be meaningfully measured • Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Descriptives (CSSCR) Zou**Descriptives (2)**• Choose “gdp_cap” for Gross Domestic Product • Click the arrow to bring it to the variables box • Click “Options” to choose the calculations you want (CSSCR) Zou**Descriptives Table in Output Viewer**• Descriptive table shows up in the Output Viewer • Shows you the Min., Max., Mean GDP of all economic regions surveyed • The world’s mean GDP is $5,859.98 Number of cases/economic regions Standard deviation (CSSCR) Zou**Explore**• You want to know the mean, minimum, standard deviation, etc. of each region • Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Explore • Enter “gdp_cap” into Dependent List • Enter “region” into Factor List (CSSCR) Zou**Explore Table in Output Viewer**Gives you the statistic in each region (CSSCR) Zou**Crosstabs (1)**• You want to compare the number or percentage of respondents within subcategories • Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs • Choose the variables you want to appear in the rows and columns • Under “Cells” you can choose to see the percentages • We will look at the predominant religion in each region of the world (CSSCR) Zou**Crosstabs (2)**• Click “Statistics” • Choose the calculations you want (CSSCR) Zou**Crosstabs in Output Viewer**In Pacific Asia, 1 country, 2.4 % is Catholic, and 5 countries, 18.5% are Muslim. Gives you the statistics previously chosen (CSSCR) Zou**Sorting Data (1)**• Sort Cases • Cases are sorted by the variable, like country name • Choose the variable you want to sort by • Click ascending or descending (CSSCR) Zou**Sorting Data (2)**• Sort Variables • Same process • Data > sort variables • Choose by which variable characteristic you want to sort (CSSCR) Zou**Selecting Cases (1)**• You want to select out certain cases to look at them more closely • For example, you want to only analyze countries that have GDP per capital less than or equal to 6000 • Go to: Data > Select cases • Click: If condition is satisfied • Click: If… (CSSCR) Zou**Selecting Cases (2)**• In the If window • Find the variable “gdp_cap” • Click arrow • gdp_cap <= 6000 • Notice the symbols • + , < , > , <= , • >= , & , | (or) • and etc… (CSSCR) Zou**Select Cases (3)**• In Data View • Cases with a per capital GDP greater than 6000 are filtered out • There is a new variable that shows the filter • In the future, use this variable as a shortcut (CSSCR) Zou**Select Cases (4)**• Turn off the filter • Data > Select cases • Click “All cases” • Notice the “If” button is turned off (CSSCR) Zou**Recoding Data (1)**• Recode gdp_cap into low, medium, high • Transform > Recode into Different Variables • Find “gdp_cap” variable • Click into box • Give a new name • Click change • Click Old and New Values (CSSCR) Zou**Recoding Data (2)**• Old and New Values Window Step 2: Type new value 1 Step 3: Click Add Step 4: Choose range for middle range, value 2 Step 5: Do the same for highest range, value 3 Step 1: Choose the range of value for category 1 (CSSCR) Zou**Recoding Data (3)**Set value labels for the new variable 1 = Low 2 = Medium 3 = High A new variable appears (CSSCR) Zou**Recoding Data (4)**• Analyze the new variable (CSSCR) Zou**Chart Builder (1)**• Toolbar • Graphs > chart builder • Chart builder window • Choose the kind of graph you want • Click & drag the graph into the above window (CSSCR) Zou**Chart Builder (2)**3. Choose the variable 4. Click & drag it into the x-axis 5. Choose the statistic you want 6. Remember to click “Apply” (CSSCR) Zou**Some Graphs**(CSSCR) Zou**Chart Editor**• Output View • Double click graph • Chart editor will pop up • Edit graph • Double click anywhere on graph to edit (CSSCR) Zou

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