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# JOG YOUR MEMORY FOR SAFETY

JOG YOUR MEMORY FOR SAFETY. ELLEN M. TOM AVIATION SAFETY INSPECTOR. OR. MNEMONICS, FORMULAE AND OTHER AVIATION TRIVIA. Introduction. REVIEW MANY SUBJECTS QUICKLY WEATHER AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE WEIGHT AND BALANCE NAVIGATION STUFF. WEATHER WISE. STANDARDS: SEA LEVEL PRESSURE

## JOG YOUR MEMORY FOR SAFETY

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1. JOG YOUR MEMORY FOR SAFETY ELLEN M. TOM AVIATION SAFETY INSPECTOR

2. OR...... MNEMONICS, FORMULAE AND OTHER AVIATION TRIVIA

3. Introduction • REVIEW • MANY SUBJECTS QUICKLY • WEATHER • AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE • WEIGHT AND BALANCE • NAVIGATION • STUFF

4. WEATHER WISE • STANDARDS: SEA LEVEL PRESSURE 29.92 TEMPERATURE 59F/15C • CONVERTING TEMPERATURES EASY WAY: C to F/Double + 30 Example: 15 C 15 x 2=30 + 30 = 60F (59)

5. FORMULA • C = 5/9 X (F - 32) Example: 15C = 5/9 x (59 - 32) 5/9 x 27 5 x 27=135 div. 9 = 15

6. FORMULA • F=(9/5 X C) +32 Example: 59F=(9/5 x 15) + 32 9 x 15 = 135 135 div. 5 = 27 27+32 = 59F

7. TEMPERATURE LAPSE RATE • NORMAL: 3.5deg F per 1000’Altitude Example: 75F on ground WHERE (APPROX.)IS FREEZING LEVEL? 75 - 32 = 43 degrees to drop to freezing 43 divided by 3.5 = 12.3 freezing level approx. 12,500 AGL

8. HEIGHT OF CLOUD BASE • Ceiling Definition: Lowest Level of clouds described as broken, overcast, not thin or partial. TO CALCULATE: SURFACE TEMP - DEW POINT DIVIDED BY 4.4F or 2.5C

9. CLOUD BASE FORMULA Surface temperature minus dew point Example: 77F-53=24div4.4=5.45(5500AGL) 33C-25=18div2.5=7.2(7200AGL)

10. CLOUDS • STRATUS CLOUDS: • SURFACE (LOW TO GROUND) • SMOOTH AIR • STABLE SYSTEM • SHOWERY PRECIPITATION

11. CLOUDS • CUMULUS CLOUDS • CHOPPY AIR • CLEAR VISIBILITY • CHIMNEY LIKE DEVELOPMENTS

12. FOG • EXPECT WHEN ? WHEN TEMPERATURE AND DEWPOINT SPREAD OF 2 DEGREES OR LESS

13. VISIBILITY • WHEN SURFACE IS JUST VISIBLE OVER NOSE OF AIRCRAFT, GROUND VISIBILITY IS APPROXIMATELY 1 MILE FOR EVERY 1000 FEET OF ALTITUDE.

14. CALCULATING VISIBILITY EXAMPLE: When cruising at 5000 AGL, ground is visible over nose....surface visibility is roughly 5 miles.

15. PRESSURE PATTERNS • NORTHERN HEMISPHERE • HIGH PRESSURE:CLOCKWISE CIRCULATION • LOW PRESSURE: COUNTER CLOCKWISE CIRCULATION

16. HIGH PRESSURE • MEMORY AIDE: Use Thumb up, fingers travel clockwise (high) • UseThumb down, fingers travel counter clockwise (low).

17. PRACTICAL USE • On Extended Flight from East to West • Fly North of Low • and South of High

18. SURFACE WEATHER MAPS • ISOBARS • Lines of equal pressure • bars barometer • ISOTACHS • Lines of equal wind velocity • tach into the wind

19. SURFACE WEATHER MAPS • ISOTHERMS Lines of equal temperature therm thermometer

20. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE • ENGINE FAILURE (FLR) Fly the aircraft Look for a place to land Restart attempt

21. PRESSURE CHANGES • 1 INCH OF PRESSURE = 1000 FEET • example: actual altimeter 29.94 • aircraft’s setting 29.69 • error in altitude .25 • 250 feet in error (1000 x .25)

22. TEMPERATURE CHANGES • FROM HIGH TO LOW LOOK OUT BELOW • Colder than standard temperature or pressure will place aircraft lower than the altimeter indicates.

23. ALTITUDES • TRUE: Height above sea level • ABSOLUTE:Height above terrain • PRESSURE: Height above standard data plane at 29.92 • DENSITY: Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature.

24. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE • Airspeeds • ICE TEA I Indicated Airspeed C Calibrated E Equivalent T True

25. AIRSPEEDS • Add 2% of indicated for each 1000’ of altitude • Example: 150KIAS at 5000’ MSL • 2% of 150=3 • 3X5 (1000’s of feet)=15 • 150+15=165K approximate TAS • Give

26. ALTIMETERS • ACCEPTABLE ERROR = +/- 75 FT. • PITOT STATIC TEST: 24 CAL. MO

27. TIRE HYDROPLANING • square root of tire pressure X 9 example: 100 psi tire square root is 10 10 x 9 = 90 K approx hydroplaning speed

28. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE • V SPEEDS • Vne: do not exceed • Va: maneuvering speed • Vle: gear extended speed • Vlo: gear operating speed • Vfe: flap extended speed

29. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE • Vso: Stall speed in landing configuration • Vs1: Stall speed in clean configuration

30. WEIGHT AND BALANCE W A M • WEIGHT X ARM=MOMENTS

31. WEIGHT AND BALANCE • Total Momemts divided by Total Weight= Center of Gravity TMTGCG

32. WEIGHT AND BALANCE • ARM=MOMENTS DIVIDED BY WEIGHT • WEIGHT=MOMENTS DIVIDED BY ARM

33. WEIGHTS • 100LL and 80 Oct= 6lbs gallon • Jet A= 6.72 lbs. per gallon • 100LL=Blue • 80Oct=Red • 100Oct=Green • JetA=Clear

34. FORMULA • Jet Fuel Weight Calculation: Request 1000 lbs of Jet A Drop Last Zero 100 Divide in half 50 Add both 150 gal equal 1000#Jet A

35. NAVIGATION • ALTITUDES TO FLY EAST IS ODD

36. DIRECTIONS • EAST IS ODD • EAST ODD PLUS 500 VFR • WEST EVEN PLUS 500 VFR • IFR SAME ONLY DROP 500

37. TRIVIA • IFR ABOVE FL 290 • EAST IS 290/330/370/410/450/490 • WEST IS 310/350/390/430/470/510

38. NAVIGATION • VARIATION EAST IS LEAST AND WEST IS BEST • Subtract Easterly variation and add • Westerly variation

39. COMPASS TRICKS • ANDS • ACCELERATE NORTH • DECELERATE SOUTH MOST APPARENT ON EAST OR WEST HEADINGS.

40. COMPASS TRICKS Why? • Due to the dip of the earth’s magnetic field. The aft end of the compass card tilts upward when accelerating and tilts downward when decelerating.

41. COMPASS TRICKS • LAGS NORTH/LEADS SOUTH If you are on a northerly heading and turn East or West, compass lags your turn. If you are on a southerly heading and turn East or West, compass leads your turn. Leads and lags by degrees of latitude of your location, i.e., CLE 41 deg. North.

42. TIME TO STATION • 60 X MINUTES BETWEEN BEARING CHANGE • DIVIDED BY DEGREES OF BEARING CHANGE

43. TIME TO STATION EXAMPLE • 60 X 4 (TIME TO FLY 10 DEG. BEARING CHANGE) • DIVIDED BY 10 DEGREES BEARING CHANGE • 240 DIVIDED BY 10=APPROXIMATELY 24 MINUTES TO STATION

44. DISTANCE TO STATION • TAS X MINUTES BETWEEN BEARING CHANGE • DIVIDED BY • DEGREES OF BEARING CHANGE

45. DISTANCE TO STATION EXAMPLE • 125 ktas X 2.5 MINUTES (TIME TO FLY 5 DEGREES BEARING CHANGE) • DIVIDED BY • 5 DEGREES BEARING CHANGE • 125 X 2.5=312.5 • DIVIDED BY 5 = • 62.5 NM APPROX TO STATION

46. NAVIGATION • ADF ORIENTATION True Bearing to Station=TH+Rel Bearing Mag Bearing to Station=MH + RB Relative Bearing=MB - MH

47. COURSE True Course +/- WCA= TH TH +/- Mag Variation=MH MH +/- Deviation=Compass Hdg. Mag Variation: Off the chart Deviation: Compass Corr. Card

48. STUFF • AIRSPACE A Above FL 180 B Busy Airport C Crowed Airport

49. AIRSPACE • D Directly above Control Tower and its approach path • E Everything else Controlled • G Ground to Controlled

50. LIGHTS • VASI • RED OVER RED YOU ARE DEAD • WHITE OVER WHITE HIGH AS A KITE

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