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    2. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the nature of job analysis (what it is and how it is used) Know how to collect job analysis information, including interview, questionnaire, observation and participant’s diary Write job descriptions, job summaries and job specifications Explain what job analysis is, what it means and how it is done in practice Explain what competence-based job analysis is

    3. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–3 The Nature of Job Analysis Job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities—one product of a job analysis. Job specifications A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on—another product of a job analysis.

    4. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–4 The Nature of Job Analysis Type of information collected: Work activities Human behaviors Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids Performance standards Job context Human requirements

    5. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–5 The Nature of Job Analysis

    6. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–6 Uses of Job Analysis Information

    7. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–7 Uses of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and selection Selection of people to recruit based on job requirements and human characteristics needed to perform these jobs Performance appraisal Compares employees’ performance with standards which are derived from job analysis

    8. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–8 Uses of Job Analysis Information Job evaluation / compensation Estimate value of each job and its appropriate compensation based on job’s required skill, education level, safety hazard, level of responsibility etc. Relative worth of job determined to group jobs into different classes Training requirements Training requirements based on job and required skills which are listed in the job description

    9. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–9 Steps in Job Analysis Step 1: Decide how you’ll use the information. Step 2: Review relevant background information – organization chart/job description Step 3: Select representative positions. Step 4: Actually analyze the job. Step 5: Verify the job analysis information. Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification.

    10. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–10 Steps in Job Analysis Organization chart A chart that shows the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom. Job specification A list of a job’s “human requirements” i.e. the requisite education, skills, personality etc.

    11. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–11 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

    12. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–12 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview Information sources Individual employees Groups of employees with same job Supervisors with knowledge of the job Interview formats Structured (Checklist) Unstructured Advantages Quick, direct way to find overlooked information. Disadvantages Distorted information

    13. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–13 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview Interview Guidelines The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best. Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers. Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview, review and verify the data.

    14. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–14 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires Information source Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities. Questionnaire formats Structured checklists Opened-ended questions Advantages Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees Disadvantages Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

    15. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–15 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation Information source Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs Advantages Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information Disadvantages Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity

    16. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–16 Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary Information source Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity Advantages Produces a more complete picture of the job Employee participation Disadvantages Distortion of information Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

    17. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–17 Writing Job Descriptions A job description A written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are.

    18. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–18 Writing Job Descriptions Sections of a typical job description Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standards of performance Working conditions Job specifications

    19. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–19 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education

    20. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–20

    21. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–21 The Job Description Job identification Job title: name of job Date: when the description was written Prepared by: who wrote the description Job summary Describes the general nature of the job Lists the major functions or activities

    22. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–22 The Job Description Relationships (chain of command) Reports to: employee’s immediate supervisor Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly supervises Works with: others with whom the job holder will be expected to work and come into contact with internally. Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.

    23. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–23 The Job Description Responsibilities and duties A listing of the job’s major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Defines limits of jobholder’s decision-making authority, direct supervision, and budgetary limitations.

    24. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–24 The Job Description Standards of Performance and Working Conditions Lists standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties Standards must be specific Examples:

    25. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–25 Writing Job Specifications To show what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities that person should be tested on Either listed in a section of job description or in a separate document

    26. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–26 Writing Job Specifications Specifications Based on Judgment Self-created judgments (common sense) Basic question: What does it take in terms of education, intelligence and training to do this job well? Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis Attempts to determine statistically the relationship between a predictor or human trait and an indicator or criterion of job effectiveness. Five-step procedure:

    27. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–27 Writing Job Specifications

    28. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–28 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World Job Generally defined as “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay.”

    29. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–29 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs Job enlargement Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform. Job enrichment Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.

    30. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–30 Job rotation Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role with the company Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance. Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World

    31. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–31 Why Managers Are Dejobbing Their Companies Dejobbing Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs Encouraging employee initiative. Internal factors leading to dejobbing Flatter organizations Work teams Re-engineering External factors leading to dejobbing. Rapid product and technological change Global competition Deregulation, Political instability, Demographic changes Rise of a service economy

    32. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–32 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World Competencies Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. Competency-based job analysis Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.

    33. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–33 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World Why Use Competency Analysis? Support HPWS Traditional job descriptions (with their lists of specific duties) may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is the goal. HPWS encourages employees to work in a self-motivated manner.

    34. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–34 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World Why Use Competency Analysis? (cont’d) Maintain a strategic focus Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic. Measure performance Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.

    35. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–35 Self-Managed Teams (SMT) in Asia A small group of workers with authority to manage their own work Set their own targets and schedule Inspect their own work Review performance as a group Allows workers to control their work arrangements and job conditions Requires technical and decision-making skills

    36. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–36 The Skills Matrix for a Job at BP

    37. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–37 SMTs at Texas Instruments (Malaysia & Philippines) – 3 levels 1. Quality steering team MD & managers 2. Process management team Heads of department 3. Self-managed team Operators and technicians

    38. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–38 SMT at Ritz Carlton (Singapore) Employees are authorized to spend up to a specific amount to please a dissatisfied guest. Credo: Do everything you can to never lose a guest. SMTs recruit their co-workers, decide on work procedures, and handle their own budget.

    39. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–39 1. Steering team Senior management to provide direction 2. Resource team Professionals to support process teams 3. Process team Employees to manufacture products or provide services SMT at Becton Dickinson Medical (Singapore) – 3 levels

    40. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–40 The process team leader should: Coordinate activities Encourage participation Facilitate team decision-making Communicate performance targets SMT at Becton Dickinson Medical (Singapore) – 3 levels

    41. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–41 Role of team members Understand team goals Participate to solve problems, make decisions Perform tasks to achieve standards Monitor results SMT at Becton Dickinson Medical (Singapore) – 3 levels

    42. © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia. All rights reserved. 4–42 Process teams are authorized to: Change methods & procedures Ensure customer satisfaction & safety Work overtime (within budget) Schedule activities Allocate resources Prioritize tasks SMT at Becton Dickinson Medical (Singapore) – 3 levels