The New World. Please pick up Focus 4 from the table and take out both Homework 1 (to be checked) and your class notes from our last class. Take the first 10 minutes of class to work with your partner on Focus 4. We will: *describe and analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange
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*describe and analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange
*complete our chronology of U.S. history
*identify the origins of racism in American history
*preview our first quiz (given in our next class)
New World colonies by 1763
Left: Mural depiction of Cortez meeting the Aztec leadership
Right: Photo and illustration of smallpox victims
Eurasians had a geographic advantage because of living along an East-West axis with similar climate and few geographic barriers
By the mid-1500s, Spaniards portrayed Native Americans as less than human:
Now compare these natural qualities of judgment, talent, magnanimity, temperance, humanity, and religion [of the Spanish] with those of these pitiful men [the Indians], in whom you will scarcely find any vestiges of humanness. These people possess neither science nor even an alphabet, nor do they preserve any monuments of their history…, nor do they have written laws, but barbarous institutions and customs. In regard to their virtues, how much restraint or gentleness are you to expect of men who are devoted to all kinds of intemperate acts and abominable lewdness, including the eating of human flesh? And you must realize that prior to the arrival of the Christians, … they made war against one another continually and fiercely, with such fury that victory was of no meaning if they did not satiate their monstrous hunger with the flesh of their enemies. ...These Indians are so cowardly and timid that they could scarcely resist the mere presence of our soldiers. Many times thousands upon thousands of them scattered, fleeing like women before a very few Spaniards. . .
--Juan de Sepulveda (1547)
--Open Letter from the American Indian Movement; October 8, 1994
“Reclaim America” by Steve Kelley for the San Diego Union Tribune (1994)