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KOORDINASI METABOLISME. Glikolisis, Siklus TCA, Respirasi, Biosintesis terjadi pada level sel Bagaimana dengan organisme tingkat tinggi (vertebrata)? Interdependensi antar organ. Input dan output bahan bakar. Tiap organ membuat energi (ATP) untuk keperluan fungsi organ masing-masing

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slide2
Glikolisis, Siklus TCA, Respirasi, Biosintesis terjadi pada level sel
  • Bagaimana dengan organisme tingkat tinggi (vertebrata)?
    • Interdependensi antar organ
input dan output bahan bakar
Input dan output bahan bakar
  • Tiap organ membuat energi (ATP) untuk keperluan fungsi organ masing-masing
    • Ginjal: ATP untuk tranport aktif
    • Otot: ATP untuk konstraksi
    • Liver: ATP untuk biosintesis
  • Rata-rata manusia memerlukan 1500-6000 kcal/hari (6000-25000 kJ/hari)
  • Jenis sumber energi dan penyimpanan energi berbeda masing-masing organ
  • Organ yang memproduksi suatu bahan bakar biasanya tidak mampu menggunakan bahan bakar tersebut
slide5
Otak
  • Perlu banyak ATP
  • Pada kondisi normal hanya menggunakan glukosa sebgai sumber energi
  • 60% glukosa digunakan untuk otak
  • 15% energi per orang digunakan untuk otak
  • Organ aerobik, 20% konsumsi oksigen
  • Diskontinyu supply glukosa menyebabkan kerusakan otak irreversible
slide7
Otot
  • Sumber energi: glukosa, asam lemak, badan keton
  • Pada keadaan istirahat sumber energi: asam lemak
  • Pada saat kontraksi sumber energi: glukosa (diawali dari glikogen)
  • ¾ glikogen manusia disimpan di otot dan tidakbisa di tranfer ke sel lain
  • Protein juga tersimpan tetapi tidak efisien jika digunakan sebagai sumber energi
jantung
Jantung
  • Seperti otot tetapi kerjanya relatif konstan
  • Aerobik
  • Banyak mitokondria
  • Tidak ada simpanan energi sehingga suplai glukosa dan oksigen dari darah harus kontinyu
jaringan adipose
Jaringan Adipose
  • Simpanan bahan bakar
  • Rata-rata manusia: 135000 kcal (565000 kJ)
  • Biosintesis dan pemecahan triasilgliserol secara kontinyu
  • Glukosa sebagai kontrol
liver
Liver
  • Biosintesis bahan bakar untuk digunakan organ lain
  • Biosintesis asam lemak
  • Biosintesis glukosa dari glikogen maupun glukoneogenesis
  • Membuffer level gula darah melalui pembentukan glikogen
  • Sumber energi: glukosa, asam lemak, asam amino
sel darah
Sel Darah
  • Penguhubung antar organ: tansport limbah suatu organ yang mungkin merupakan bahan bakar organ lain
  • Mentransport oksigen dan karbon dioksida
  • Trnasport hormon
  • Transport produk akhir seperti urea ke ginjal
  • Sumber energi: glukosa (anaerob) di eritrosit
  • 50% darah berupa sel darah (99% berupa eritrosit)
hormones are chemical signaling substances
Hormones are chemical signaling substances.

Growth and differentiation of cells, tissues, and organs

These processes include cell proliferation, embryonic development, and sexual differentiation mainly steroid hormones

Metabolic pathways

Themain processes subject to hormonal regulation are the uptake and degradation of storage substances (glycogen, fat). Peptide hormon (Insulin, glukagon) dan tyrosine based hormon: epeniprine (adrenaline)

Digestive processes

Digestive processes are usually regulated by locally acting peptides (paracrine: gastrointestinal tract hormones).

Maintenance of ion concentrations (homeostasis)

Concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl– in body fluids, and the physiological variables dependent on these (e. g. blood pressure), are subject to strict regulation. The principal site of action of the hormones involved is the kidneys, where hormones increase or reduce the resorption of ions and recovery of water. The concentrations of Ca2+ and phosphate, which form the mineral substance of bone and teeth, are also precisely regulated.

meknisme kerja hormon
Meknisme kerja hormon
  • Helix reseptor
  • Ion channel
  • Signal transduksi: GPCR
  • Second messengers: cAMP, inositol, Ca Calmodulin
insulin dan glukagon
Insulin dan Glukagon
  • Diproduksi di pankreas
slide28

LIVER

Alan R. Satiel & C.R. Kahn (2001) Nature 414:799-806

slide29

MUSCLE

Alan R. Satiel & C.R. Kahn (2001) Nature 414:799-806

slide34

Insulin signalling normally reverses the effects of glucagon signalling.

http://casestudies.med.utah.edu/med1/diabetes2 (molecular & cell biology)

epeneprin
Epeneprin
  • Pada keadaan stress atau yang memicu aktifitas ekstra (bertarung, ketakutan)
  • Signal neuron dari otak memacu pelepasan hormon epinephrine dan norepinephrine
diabetes
Diabetes

Type I diabetes, or insulindependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM),

  • Pancreatic cells inable to produce sufficient insulin.
  • IDDM requires insulin therapy.

Type II diabetes, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM),

  • typically in older, obese individuals),
  • insulin is produced, but some feature of the insulin-response system is defective.

Characteristic symptoms of type I (and type II) diabetes are

  • excessive thirst and frequent urination (polyuria),
  • leading to the intake of large volumes of water (polydipsia)
  • These symptoms are due to the excretion of large amounts of glucose in the urine, a condition known as glucosuria
obesitas
Obesitas
  • Obesitas (Obesity is defined in terms of body mass index (BMI):

BMI: weight in kg/(height in m)2.

  • BMI < 25 : normal;
  • BMI 25 - 30 : overweight
  • BMI > 30 : obese