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Chemistry 101. Dr. Don DeCoste 109 Chemistry Annex decoste@illinois.edu 244-5959 2-3 pm Mondays and 10-11 am Thursdays By appointment. To Do…. http://chem.illinois.edu Slides on the website (after each lecture) Lab tomorrow (see Sig Fig video on website).

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Chemistry 101
Chemistry 101

  • Dr. Don DeCoste

  • 109 Chemistry Annex

  • decoste@illinois.edu

  • 244-5959

  • 2-3 pm Mondays and 10-11 am Thursdays

  • By appointment


To do
To Do…

  • http://chem.illinois.edu

  • Slides on the website (after each lecture)

  • Lab tomorrow (see Sig Fig video on website).

  • Lon-Capa (HW1 Type 2 due Wednesday, January 29 by 7 pm).


Chemistry some big ideas
Chemistry – Some Big Ideas

  • Atoms have structure.

    • Subatomic particles – electrons, protons, and neutrons.

    • Atoms are mostly open space.

    • Atoms can attract (and repel) one another.


Atomic structure so what
Atomic Structure–So What?

  • Bonds form within molecules.

  • Molecules are sticky (forces between molecules).

  • Different reactivities of elements (why is He in Mylar balloons?).

  • Fireworks.

  • Pools close during a thunderstorm.


Atomic structure how do we know
Atomic Structure: How Do We Know?

  • Thomson and the electron.

  • Rutherford and the nucleus: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pZj0u_XMbc




Clicker question
Clicker Question

How many of the following are true regarding the number of protons in an atom?

I. Identifies the element.

II. Gives the number of electrons in a neutral atom.

III. Gives the number of neutrons in a neutral atom.

IV. Tells the element’s atomic number.

A) 0

B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

E) 4


Using the periodic table
Using The Periodic Table

  • Element: neutral; defined by the number of protons.

  • Ions: positive or negatively charged; comes from a differing number of electrons.

  • Isotopes: atoms of the same element with differing number of neutrons.





Using the periodic table1
Using The Periodic Table

  • Symbol, name, number of protons (all of these are related).

  • Number of electrons in a neutral atom or in an ion.




Using the periodic table4
Using The Periodic Table

  • Formulas of some ionic compounds.

  • Naming simple compounds.

    [Chapter 5 material]


Three types of binary compounds
Three Types of Binary Compounds

  • Metal (Groups 1, 2, 3) and nonmetal

    • Simple naming: sodium chloride [NaCl], calcium bromide [CaBr2].

  • Metal (transition) and nonmetal

    • Roman numerals: iron(II) oxide [FeO].

  • Two nonmetals

    • Prefixes: carbon dioxide [CO2].



Three types of binary compounds2
Three Types of Binary Compounds

  • CaO calcium oxide

  • CoO cobalt(II) oxide

  • CO carbon monoxide


Type i compound

Type I Compound

CaO calcium oxide


Type i compound1

Type I Compound

CaO calcium oxide

Charge Balance:

Ca2+ O2-

(2+) + (2-) = 0


Type ii compound

Type II Compound

CoO cobalt(II) oxide


Type ii compound1

Type II Compound

CoO cobalt(II) oxide


Type ii compound2

Type II Compound

CoO cobalt(II) oxide

Co2+O2-

(2+) + (2-) = 0

Co2O3 cobalt(III) oxide

Co3+ O2-

2(3+) + 3(2-) = 0


Type iii compound

Type III Compound

CO carbon monoxide


Type iii compound1

Type III Compound

CO carbon monoxide


Type i compound2

Type I Compound

Ca3P2 calcium phosphide



Type iii compound2

Type III Compound

N2O5

dinitrogenpentoxide


Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions

  • Ammonium

  • Nitrate

  • Sulfate

  • Hydroxide

  • Phosphate

  • Carbonate


Clicker question1
Clicker Question

Which of the following is the correct name for the compound with the formula MgF2?

a) magnesium(II) fluoride

b) magnesium difluoride

c) magnesium fluoride

d) magnesium fluorite

e) magnesium fluorate


Clicker question2
Clicker Question

Which of the following is the correct name for the compound with the formula MgF2?

a) magnesium(II) fluoride

b) magnesium difluoride

c) magnesium fluoride

d) magnesium fluorite

e) magnesium fluorate


Clicker question3
Clicker Question

Which of the following is named incorrectly?

a) PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

b) KCl potassium(I) chloride

c) CuO copper(II) oxide

d) Cu2O copper(I) oxide

e) CO carbon monoxide


Clicker question4
Clicker Question

Which of the following is named incorrectly?

a) PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

b) KCl potassium(I) chloride

c) CuO copper(II) oxide

d) Cu2O copper(I) oxide

e) CO carbon monoxide



Clicker question5
Clicker Question

How many significant figures should be reported?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) 5


Clicker question6
Clicker Question

How many significant figures should be reported?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) 5


Clicker question7
Clicker Question

What is the volume reading of the buret?

a) 20.14

b) 20.15

c) 20.16

d) 20.17

e) 20.18


Clicker question8
Clicker Question

Leading zeroes are ____ significant, captive zeroes are ____ significant, and trailing zeros are ____ significant.

a) always, always, always

b) never, never, never

c) sometimes, sometimes, sometimes

d) never, sometimes, sometimes

e) never, always, sometimes


Clicker question9
Clicker Question

Leading zeroes are ____ significant, captive zeroes are ____ significant, and trailing zeros are ____ significant.

a) always, always, always

b) never, never, never

c) sometimes, sometimes, sometimes

d) never, sometimes, sometimes

e) never, always, sometimes


Clicker question10
Clicker Question

How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.030140 liters?

a) 3

b) 4

c) 5

d) 6

e) 7


Clicker question11
Clicker Question

How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.030140 liters?

a) 3

b) 4

c) 5

d) 6

e) 7


Clicker question12
Clicker Question

You add 82.4 mL of water in a graduated cylinder to 25 mL of water in a beaker. How much water should you report?

a) 100 mL (1 significant figure)

b) 110 mL (2 significant figures)

c) 110. mL (3 significant figures)

d) 107 mL (3 significant figures)

e) 107.4 (4 significant figures)


Clicker question13
Clicker Question

You add 82.4 mL of water in a graduated cylinder to 25 mL of water in a beaker. How much water should you report?

a) 100 mL (1 significant figure)

b) 110 mL (2 significant figures)

c) 110. mL (3 significant figures)

d) 107 mL (3 significant figures)

e) 107.4 (4 significant figures)


Restrictions on reactions
Restrictions on Reactions

  • Element conservation.

    CHEMISTRY 102-104:

  • Thermodynamics: Suniv must increase.

  • Kinetics: time is a factor for reactions to occur.


Chemistry some big ideas1
Chemistry – Some Big Ideas

  • Chemical changes are accompanied by energy changes.

    • Reactions are due to breaking bonds and forming bonds.

    • Exothermic versus endothermic.