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  1. Why is Lactobacillus Acidophilus so Important for chicken’s Health? By Akrum Hamdy*, G. Tellez** and B. M. Hargis** *Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt. **Department of Poultry Science, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701

  2. Introduction Why Chicken? The chicken is a unique experimental animal in which to examine the phenomenon of implantation. Its crop characteristically contains a micro flora in which the lactobacilli predominate over coli forms and streptococci.

  3. The Chicken Industry Chicken is an excellent source of protein with approximately 90% of all adults eating chicken regularly. Relative to other protein sources, chicken is readily available, versatile and good value.

  4. Broiler production in major countries is estimated to total 74,237,000 metric tons in 2009, 3.5% more than the 71,733,000 tons expected this year, according to data from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

  5. Global egg production doubled between 1990 and 2005. By then, some 64 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide. Today there are approximately 4.93 billion egg laying hens in the world, each capable of producing up to 300 eggs per year. By 2015, world egg production is expected to reach 72 million tons, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  6. There generally exist two kinds of microbial flora in the digestive tract. The first consists of indigenous, beneficial micro-organisms which have achieved a close relationship with the host through a long period of evolution. The other consists of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms.

  7. The Gut: Inside Out Yet in evolutionary terms, the gut, as an endodermal organ, predates any mesodermal organ, and it has reached a level of complexity and sophistication that is only starting to be appreciated.

  8. The Gut Microflora The size of the population—up to 100 trillion. Bacteria living in the gut achieve the highest cell densities recorded for any ecosystem. And is 10 times greater than the total number of chicken’s somatic and germ cells.

  9. The Intestinal Microflora Is an essential ‘‘organ’’ in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity Yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described.

  10. Development of Bacterial Colonies in chicken Intestine: The results of a recent studies indicated that in young chicks the major species present in the small intestines and ceca was Lactobacilli, with a Bifid bacteria population becoming more dominant in the ceca at older age. Clostridium was detected in some segments of the small intestine in young chicks. In older chickens, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli species were found in the ceca.

  11. Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!

  12. Total bacterial population in the intestine

  13. Probiotic Is defined as a live microbial food supplement which benefits the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance.

  14. Beneficial Bacteria of Probiotics may improve metabolism by increasing: Absorptive capacity [6] Protein and energy metabolism [5, 8] Fiber digestion [8] Energy conversion [9] Gut maturation [10] Immunostimulation [5.11]

  15. Low pH Ca +Acetate Ca +Propionato Ca+ absorbation affecting the Intestinal pH. BUTIRATE

  16. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will not only benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency but is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safety of poultry products [9,10].

  17. Lactobacilli Tremendous Biologic Activity(LTBA) Energy source for enterocites [2,3] Increasing blood flow [31] Regulating intestinal motility [1,2, 3] Increasing epithelial cell prolipheration [4] Decreasing pH [5] Mucin Production [6,9,11]

  18. Beneficial Bacteria Probiotics Prebiotics Synbiotics Short Chain Fatty Acids

  19. Role of Microorganisms in Poultry Production In poultry, intestinal villi, which play a crucial role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, are underdeveloped at hatch [6] but maximum absorption capacity is attained by 10 days of age [10,11].

  20. In the immediate post hatch period Birds must undergo the transition from energy supplied by the endogenous nutrients of the yolk to exogenous carbohydrate-rich feed. During that critical time dramatic changes occur both in the intestinal size and morphology [6].

  21. Probiotics for Hour-Old Chicks: Newly hatched chicks have sterile gut and it will take few hours to few days to initialize and establish the optimal gut flora required. Immediately after hatch the chicks are to be transported to poultry farms which are located at different far away places from the hatchery.

  22. Reports from various researchers, it is found that Streptococcus and Enterococcus will only take about 24 hours for their multiplication, which are undesirable. But, for Lactobacilli and Bacillus, it will take 24-48 hours for the initiation of development and will take 21 days for the complete establishment in the gut, half of the life cycle in case of broilers.

  23. Metabolic Machines The microflora can metabolize proteins and protein degradation products Sulfur-containing compounds Endogenous and exogenous glycoproteins The most abundant source of carbon on earth

  24. Probiotics for Adult Birds:

  25. Bielke et al., 2004Poultry Sci. 82: 1378-1382. Published studies indicated that after screening more than 8 million enteric organisms for competition in vitro, 36 organisms were identified that had the ability to exclude Salmonella in neonatal poultry.

  26. Conclusions The interest in digestive physiology and the role of microorganisms has generated data whereby human and animal well being can be enhanced and the risk of disease reduced.

  27. Thank you . Much research has been completed in efforts to understand and apply the natural benefits of LAB, but there is much still to do.

  28. References • 1- Bischoff, K.M. Antimicrobial use in food animals and the search for potential alternatives (oral presentation). American Society of Animal Science/American Dairy Science Association National Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. 2003. • 2- Bischoff, K.M. Persistence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria of food animals (oral presentation). FSIS Meat and Poultry Inspection Seminar for International Government Officials. College Station, TX. 2003. • 3- Bischoff, K.M. Antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria of food animals (oral presentation). FSIS Meat and Poultry Inspection Seminar for International Government Officials. College Station, TX. 2003. • 4- CREEMER, L.C., BEIER, R.C., KIEHL, D.E. FACILE SYNTHESIS OF TILMICOSIN AND TYLOSIN RELATED HAPTENS FOR USE AS PROTEIN CONJUGATES. JOURNAL OF ANTIBIOTICS. 2003. v. 56(5). p. 481-487. • 5- Edrington, T.S., Callaway, T.R., Bischoff, K.M., Genovese, K.J., Elder, R.O., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. Effect of feeding the ionospheres monensin and laidlomycin propionate and the antimicrobial bambermycin to sheep experimentally infected with E. coli 0157:H7 and salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Animal Science. 2003. v. 81. p. 553-560. • 6- Edrington, T.S., Callaway, T.R., Varey, P.D., Jung, Y.S., Bischoff, K.M., Elder, R.O., Anderson, R.C., Kutter, E., Brabbin, A.D., Nisbet, D.J. Effects of the antibiotic ionophores monensin, lasalocid, laidlomycin propionate and bambermycin on salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2003. v. 94. p. 207-217. • 7- Poole, T.L. Microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance (oral presentation). FSIS Meat and Poultry Inspection Seminar for International Government Officials. College Station, TX. 2003.

  29. 8- Poole, T.L., Genovese, K.J., Knape, K.D., Callaway, T.R., Bischoff, K.M., Nisbet, D.J. 2003. Effect of sub therapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the inhibitory stringency of a mixed anaerobe continuous-flow culture of chicken micro flora against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 94:73-79. 9- SHEFFIELD, C.L., HUME, M.E., DROLESKEY, R.E., HARVEY, R.B., BISCHOFF, K.M. RIBOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILES OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI ISOLATES FROM SWINE. Online Journal of Veterinary Research. 2003. v. 7. p. 52-58. 10- Sheffield, C.L., Hume, M.E., Droleskey, R.E., Harvey, R.B., Bischoff, K.M. 2003. Riboprinter characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profiles of Campylobacter coli isolates from swine. Proceedings of International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs. 2:108-110. 11- Tellez. G, Higgins.S. E, Donoghue. A Hargis. B.M, 2006. Digestive physiology and the role of microorganisms. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. Vol. 15 (No.1) S83