Implementing civil rights and the great society
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Implementing Civil Rights and the Great Society. 1970s to Present. 1950s-1960s. Court Decisions, Legislation, and Administrative structures to implement Civil Rights: examples: School integration Integration of Public Accommodations Voting Rights Act Affirmative Action and Labor Policy.

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1950s 1960s
1950s-1960s

  • Court Decisions, Legislation, and Administrative structures to implement Civil Rights: examples:

    • School integration

    • Integration of Public Accommodations

    • Voting Rights Act

    • Affirmative Action and Labor Policy


Examples of federal implementation
Examples of Federal Implementation

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), created in 1965

  • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, Labor Department (OFCCP), created in 1965

  • Civil Rights Division (Justice Department), founded in 1957.


EEOC

  • Responds to complaints of discrimination by individuals

  • Can sue violators on behalf of the federal government

  • Offices around the country


Ofccp
OFCCP

  • Conducts reviews of hiring and promotion practices of employers with federal contracts

  • The question: does the workforce look like the labor pool?

  • Can call for changes in labor practices by threatening to deny federal contracts

  • Offices around the country


Civil rights division doj
Civil Rights Division, DOJ

  • Enforces all federal anti discrimination litigation

  • Located in Washington, DC


Results
Results?

  • Women’s earnings on average: $.59 to $.75 of male wage

  • By late 1990s: 40% of African-Americans in “middle class.” 60% of whites

  • Continuing residential segregation by race:

    • Of WI pop: (~5 m): 220,000 African Americans in Milwaukee are about 4% of state pop but 35-40% of city


Results political system
Results….Political System

  • Black elected officials (BEO): fewer than 1500 nationally in 1970; now over 9000

  • Around 40 members of Congress; 49 big city mayors

  • 57.1% of Black big city mayors elected in cities without a Black majority population

  • Blacks are 4.7% of voting age population in WI. The 33 BEO are .2% of total in state.



Results political system women
Results….Political System, Women

  • National Positions:

    • Currently about 15% of U.S. House and Senate are women; 2% since 1789

    • 32 women in cabinet posts ever (Frances Perkins, and Oveta Culp Hobby were only 2 before 1975)

  • State government:

    • Women hold 25% of statewide elective executive offices

    • 28 women have ever held the position of state governor.

    • Women held 23% of state legislators nationwide - 2005; as compared to 4.5% in 1971


New issues in implementation
New Issues in Implementation

  • Glass Ceiling

  • Affirmative Action

  • Sexual Harassment

  • Reverse Discrimination

  • The Double Day

  • Mommy Track


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