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Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace . Collaborative Course: Loyola University of Chicago School of Social Work and Vytautas Magnus University School of Social Work Spring, 2011. Faculty Loyola: Professor Katherine Tyson

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global social work practice reflective practice for justice and peace

Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace

Collaborative Course: Loyola University of Chicago School of Social Work and Vytautas Magnus University School of Social Work

Spring, 2011


Loyola: Professor Katherine Tyson

VMU: Professor Violeta Ivanauskiene

group presentation assignment
Group Presentation Assignment
  • Imagine: You are a team of global social workers consulting with the United Nations
  • Choose a social problem anywhere in the world and:
    • describe the nature and extent of the problem and
    • what social workers could do, if they had the funding from the UN, to remedy it
  • When all the presentations are completed we will reconsider our definitions of Global Social Work Practice and see if we need to revise it
The Singing Revolutions

In Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia,


The Baltic Way

Vytautas the Great

(courtesy of Wikipedia)

Church of

Vytautas the Great,

Kaunas, Lithuania

Resurrection Church

Kaunas, Lithuania

TV Tower

Vilnius, LT

About Vytautas Magnus University

“The beginnings of higher education in Lithuania go back to the 16th century when, in 1579, the college founded by Jesuits in Vilnius became a higher school of education, the University of Vilnius. In 1832, Czar Nicholas I closed the university. After the independence of Lithuania was declared, in 1918, the State Council decided to re-establish the University of Vilnius. Since Vilnius was occupied and the Lithuanian government transferred to Kaunas, this decision was not put into effect.

In 1920, Higher Courses of Study were begun in Kaunas, laying the foundation for the establishment of a university. In February 1922, the Lithuanian Government of Ministers decided to establish the University of Lithuania in Kaunas. The ceremonial opening of the university took place on February 16, 1922. On June 7, 1930, the university was named Vytautas Magnus University. It was closed during the Soviet occupation. The act of re-establishing Vytautas Magnus University was proclaimed on April 28, 1989.”

Woodcarver at Baltica 2005

Festival, Vilnius, Lithuania

globalization and social work
Globalization and Social Work
  • What is globalization? (Hare, p. 408)
    • Economic
    • Ecological
    • Social
  • Role of global social worker: Promote social development via
    • Direct services (micro and meso level)
    • Participating in international policy-making or planning organizations
  • Knowledge base
    • Socially-constructed: what is that?
    • Theory
    • Evidence-based
    • Indigenous (Hare p. 415)
human rights orientation of this course
Human rights orientation of this course:
  • Social services that focus on:
    • Facilitating healing of social and familial trauma
    • Advancing social justice within and between countries
    • Fostering cross-cultural and transnational understanding and cooperation
    • Advancing self-determination, peace and freedom
What are social work roles in your country? How are they similar and different from global social work practice?
  • Advocate
  • Program developer and manager
  • Practitioner with individuals, families, groups
  • School social worker/social pedagogue
  • Researcher
  • Social policy planning
  • Consultant and supervisor
  • Educator
  • More?
characteristics of international social work ahmadi
Characteristics of international social work (Ahmadi)
  • Consolidation of democracy
    • Remedying poverty
  • Global solidarity, conflict prevention, peace-keeping
  • Transcending nation-states (20)
  • Creation of solutions based on regional needs beyond national borders (21)
  • Involving new social actors to frame common solutions
questions about global social work gray and fook
Questions about Global Social Work (Gray and Fook)
  • Definition p. 628, 630-631
  • Four debates (p. 627)
    • Efforts towards indigenisation of sw based on articulating cultural practices, p. 634-5
    • How distinguish local from global now? 635
    • Universalizing recommendations 637-638
  • SW is instrument of government?
  • SW is discourse about it, or practice?
  • Who dominates discourse and why?
  • Value of universal standards for social work (p. 629) but how to monitor?
  • Final recommendations p. 639
international federation of social workers
International Federation of Social Workers
  • “The International Federation of Social Workers recognizes that social work originates variously from humanitarian, religious and democratic ideals and philosophies; and that it has universal application to meet human needs arising from personal-societal interactions, and to develop human potential.Professional social workers are dedicated to service for the welfare and self-fulfillment of human beings; to the development and disciplined use of scientific knowledge regarding human behavior and society; to the development of resources to meet individual, group, national and international needs and aspirations; to the enhancement and improvement of the quality of life of people; and to the achievement of social justice.”
what is your opinion of this definition of global social work
What is your opinion of this definition of Global Social Work?
  • The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilizing theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work.
  • By: International Federation of Social Workers, 2000
tackling global poverty seipel
Tackling Global Poverty (Seipel)
  • Define poverty:
    • 1) Income, 2) Human Poverty Index
  • Important facts:
    • Decline in poverty rate; but gap between rich and poor countries is growing (p. 198)
    • 1.3 billion out of all people in developing countries live below the international poverty rate of $1 per day
    • Great income disparities within regions and between regions
    • Growth of external debt among developing countries
    • “Commitment to education is not prominent in many parts of the world” (198) and in some regions has actually decreased since the 1980s
poverty reduction seipel
Poverty reduction (Seipel)
  • An effective anti-poverty approach must have many foundations and be sustainable (199)
  • Economic growth with equity (200)
    • Support micro-enterprise
    • Create jobs through tax policies and legislation, w/ training, savings, health services
  • International cooperation
    • Support fair trade
    • Reduce unmanageable foreign debts
    • Improve foreign aid
  • Social investment
    • Inhibit political corruption
    • Develop human capital, health & equity
    • Educate all people
    • Facilitate solidarity among poor people to advance their political leverage
amartya sen development as freedom 1999
Amartya SenDevelopment as Freedom(1999)
  • Five distinct types of freedom, all of which focus on human choice:
    • “1) political freedoms,
    • 2) economic facilities,
    • 3) social opportunities,
    • 4) transparency guarantees, and
    • 5) protective security” (1999, p. 10).
  • Definitions:
    • Transparency guarantees: the need for openness that people can expect: the freedom to deal with one another under guarantees of disclosure and lucidity. When that trust is seriously violated, the lives of many people – both direct parties and third parties – may be adversely affected by the lack of openness… These guarantees have a clear instrumental role in preventing corruption, financial irresponsibility and underhand dealings” (1999, p. 40).
    • “Protective security” citizens’ need for social, economic, and medical safety nets, which are needed in many countries as well as in many communities in the United States.
    • Unfreedom includes the recognition that threats to human sustenance are physically dangerous and psychologically shackling.
amartya sen possibility of social choice
Amartya Sen: Possibility of social choice
  • Task: develop using systematic investigation, broadly applicable and reasonable axioms about important aspects of social choice
  • Questions in developing social choice theory p. 188.
  • Example: how to define poverty? 194 how is poverty shared and distributed? What is comparative deprivation? 197
  • Distinguish adaptation and ability to find contentment in life from true social choice
freedom and self determination
Freedom and Self-Determination
  • Respecting the client’s right to self-determination is a longstanding value of social work
  • One’s chosen values, cognition, and intentions have significant regulatory impact on subjective experience and even on aspects of brain function
  • Self-determination is a capacity in each person, hence a standard with which to evaluate a client’s developmental progress; it includes:
    • Multicultural definitions of selfhood (Ewalt)
    • Freedom with regard to aspects of life that one’s choices can direct (Sen 1999)
    • Inner freedom from drivenness by intentions acquired to cope with traumatizing experiences -- Reflective awareness of own intentions and goals and capacity to freely choose between them
self determination
  • Is the birthright of every person
  • Is manifested in:
    • A capacity to recognize truth in self and others (integrity in Stephen Carter’s[1996] use of the term)
    • A stable perception of and action to advance justice (fair, equitable treatment of all)
    • The ability to think autonomously about oneself and one’s world (a free mind)
    • The ability to advocate for fair treatment of oneself
    • Competence in one’s chosen work
    • A capacity to experience the pleasures of intimacy (romantic and caregiving intimacy)
practice implications of cultural variations in self determination
Practice Implications of Cultural Variations in Self-Determination
  • How directive should social worker be (Gray & Fook, p. 636-637)?
  • How individualized is the notion of ‘self’?
  • How much freedom of choice does the person believe s/he has in that society? How much does s/he actually have?
discussion questions
Discussion Questions

a) How does the concept of self-determination that Patricia Ewalt describes fit with your cultural definitions of self-determination? This includes both the concept of self, and the concept of freedom of choice.

b) What kinds of obstacles to self-determination do clients you have worked with experience?

c) How do you think social workers can develop self-determination for people 1) individually 2) in communities 3) nationally 4) globally?

d) Amartya Sen bases his ideas on concepts of Freedom of Choice (see slide) and he discusses five kinds of freedom. Give examples of those freedoms and unfreedoms in your country.

questions raised in the context of post soviet democratization
Questions raised in the context of post-Soviet democratization
  • What is freedom? (see Jurkuviene & Harrison; Stevenson)
    • Freedom for what? Freedom from what?
  • What is democracy? (consider Jane Addams’ definition)
  • How is democracy maintained?
  • What is the role of civil society in democracy?
  • How does social work contribute to civil society and thereby democracy?
developing social services in russia tempelman
Developing social services in Russia (Tempelman)

- Microethnographic study of social workers in Russia found:

    • Despite social problems accompanying democratization and societal instability, there is excitement about the new freedom
    • With democratization and increased recognition of social problems, there is a need for defining and developing new forms of practice to respond to the new context
    • Importance of research to establish practice models and define problem areas
  • Current issues in social work:
    • Establishing legitimacy of social work as a profession
    • Social work education
discussion questions1
Discussion questions
  • How does your country need to develop and improve its democracy?
  • How can social workers in your country contribute to that process?
healey global social work has four key dimensions
Healey: Global Social Work has four key dimensions
  • Internationally-related domestic practice and advocacy:
    • addressing problems that cross national boundaries (e.g., trafficking, drug sales)
    • Working with international populations
  • Professional exchange: using knowledge gained from other countries to improve practice and policy in home country
  • International Practice: Social workers contribute to international development by working in international development agencies – Grameen Bank example p. 11
  • International policy development and advocacy: Social work as a worldwide movement influencing policy at the international level, as in educational efforts with UN policy deliberations on violence against women, p. 13
  • Discussion Question: What examples of these aspects of Global Social Work have you seen?
global social welfare organizations
Global social welfare organizations
  • United Nations (p. 127 ff) - aims of peace, international amity, cooperation, and harmonizing govt actions to attain common goals; 185 member nations
    • Economic and Social Council
    • High Commission for Refugees
    • UNICEF
    • UNDP
    • WHO
    • UN Fund for Population Activities
  • World Bank: provides loans to encourage development activities
  • International Monetary fund: provides technical assistance to countries on financial matters (banking, taxation, etc.) (p. 135)
  • USAID (138): foreign aid program
  • Peace corps
  • NGO: relief and development, advocacy, development education, exchange, agencies engaged in global sw, agencies with branches in many countries
Efforts to articulate global human rights
  • and global professional ethics:

The articulation of a view of universal values regarding human life:

    • The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights at:
  • Example of universal professional code of ethics:
    • The International Federation of Social Workers Statement on Ethics at:
global social work values
Global Social Work Values
  • What is the debate about between universalism in values and cultural relativism of values? (Healey p. 152)
  • Do you have examples of how a clash of values relevant for social work is evident in cross-cultural human rights concerns?
    • In your example, who participates in the formation of the cultural values and who benefits from maintaining them?
    • In your example, how might value clashes be reframed so people can benefit from the dynamic (e.g. changing) aspect of cultural values?
global professional ethics pettifor 2004
Global Professional Ethics(Pettifor, 2004)
  • Professional codes of ethics (p. 264):
    • “promote optimal behavior by providing aspirational principles”
    • “regulate professional behavior by monitoring and disciplinary action” - eg protect people from the misuse of professional power
    • Promote ethical thinking rather than rule-following
    • Consolidate professional identity
  • Discussion questions:
    • What kinds of ethical conflicts are problematic for social workers in your country?
    • Have there been examples of the misuse of social workers’ professional power in your country that concern you?
discussion questions about developing professional ethical thinking
Discussion questions about developing professional ethical thinking
  • If professional codes of ethics are transplanted from one culture to another:
    • Can the values and standards fit with the values and standards of the country to which they are transplanted?
    • Can the values and the standards be consistent with actual practice?
  • “A basic level of safety, open communication, democratic institutions, and human rights may be essential for professional ethical thinking” (p. 270 Pettifor). Do you agree? Why or why not?
Working for reconciliation in the context of massive societal trauma: The example of Rwanda (discussion of Pham et al., 2004)
  • Define precisely the nature of the trauma Rwandan people experienced due to the genocide
  • What social efforts were made to generate reconciliation and how effective were they?
    • Judicial
    • Legislative
  • What associations did the authors find between PTSD symptoms and attitudes towards social justice and reconciliation?
  • Why would PTSD symptoms make it difficult for people to feel comfortable working with others?
Working for reconciliation in the context of massive societal trauma: The example of Rwanda (Pham et al., 2004)

Rwanda used three judicial processes to rectify effects of the 1994 conflict:

  • the ICTR,
  • Rwandan national trials, and
  • gacaca trials.

People responded most positively to gacaca: they felt more informed and involved with the process (p. 610).“When people feel as thought they have more control of the outcome, they are more likely to support the process. Since gacaca is community-based and trials are held publicly within the community, people may be more involved and committed” (2004, p. 610).

The least positive response was toward ICTR, about which Rwandans had the least information. Therefore,“a lack of reliable information is the key factor undermining the capacity of the tribunal to contribute to reconciliation in Rwanda” (p. 610)

Individuals within the community respond more positively when feeling involved in the justice process.

discussion questions2
Discussion questions
  • What examples do you see in your country of PTSD that results from societal or ethnic-level violence?
  • What are aspects of global social workers roles to assist with this PTSD?
stigma and access to care discussion of castro farmer 2005
Stigma and access to care(discussion of Castro & Farmer, 2005)
  • How are stigma and discrimination at the heart of the AIDS pandemic?
  • Define structural violence.
  • What did the authors find about why stigma is so hard to eradicate?
  • How does treatment spark a ‘virtuous social cycle’? (p. 56)
  • If you apply these ideas to clinical social work treatment, how would clinical social work treatment spark a ‘virtuous social cycle’?
divorced from justice
Divorced from Justice
  • Highlighting and criticizing personal status laws that are derived from interpretations of Muslim Sharia is religiously explosive for some
  • Human Rights Watch report on Divorce in Egypt (2004), key findings:
    • Women and men have different systems for obtaining divorce (109)
    • Obedience complaints: filed by men if a woman leaves the home without man’s permission (110)
    • No female judges
    • Many Egyptian women become impoverished and homeless in divorce process (often giving up all financial rights in exchange for divorce)
  • Two band-aid solutions (no change in underlying legal structure):
    • 2000: Kuhl or no-fault divorce instituted
    • Family courts established 2004 (114)
Developing culturally sound definitions of well-being and mental health(discussion of Wong & Tsang, 2004)
  • What are some examples of Western misunderstandings of Asian cultures and values?
  • What is ‘essentialization,’ why is it problematic, and what alternatives are there? (p. 457)
  • Can you think of other examples of essentialization?
  • How might essentialization interfere with forming a good social work alliance?
  • What are the key dimensions of mental health according to the Asian women?
    • Spirituality
    • Social conditions and access to opportunities
    • Autonomy and self-confidence
  • Thinking about these definitions of mental health, how would you define mental health?
discussion of the origins of cultural cognition
Discussion of “The origins of cultural cognition”
  • What is the pivotal and quintessentially human capability?
  • Define: intention; skills of cultural cognition
  • How do children learn to read the intentions of others?
  • What do the authors mean by their statement, “language is not basic, it is derived” (27) and why is this important?
discussion of cooperation and competition in peaceful societies
Discussion of: Cooperation and competition in peaceful societies
  • How does the researcher define a peaceful society and what are some examples?
  • What does the researcher conclude about the link between competition and aggression by examining peaceful societies?
  • What are some hallmarks of child rearing in peaceful societies?
  • What are some rituals that foster cooperation? Competition?
  • Do you believe that competition fosters aggression and violence?
  • How can you as a social worker promote peace in your country? Globally?
Discussion questions for: Child-rearing and the development of behavioral inhibition in China and Canada
  • How is behavioral inhibition defined and measured in this research? Why is it an important concept for child development?
  • What statistical associations did the researchers find between the mothers’ attitudes and the children’s behavioral inhibition?
  • Do you agree with the researchers’ conclusions that cultural values are expressed by the mothers express and influence their children?
discussion of aggression in russian children
Discussion of Aggression in Russian Children
  • How do the researchers define and measure aggression and ‘relational aggression’?
  • How are parenting styles and marital interactions defined and measured in this study?
  • How can parents minimize dysfunctional forms of aggression in their children? Does this vary by country and culture?
  • Gender differences in relational aggression often are noted in the US but not in this Russian sample. How do the researchers explain this and do you agree?
effects of political violence on palestinian children s behavior problems
Effects of Political Violence on Palestinian Children’s Behavior Problems
  • Context
    • prior to 1987 Intifada (Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza Strip) 39% of Palestinian children had lost a family member, 85% had witnessed political-motivated violence
    • 50-63,000 children were injured in first 2 years of Intifada; 18,000 men arrested and separated from their children
    • Secret police had posed as researchers and journalists so intermediaries had to be used to conduct interviews
  • Research questions (p. 35): What is the impact of living in a war zone in the context of other developmental risk factors?
effects of political violence on palestinian children cont
Effects of political violence on Palestinian children, cont.

Hypothesis: Repeated exposure to violence multiplies the risk of children developing PTSD (with behavior problems, numbing, dissociation, etc.)

Sample: 150 children, 6-9 and 12-15, boys and girls, in low-violence and high-violence communities, all in 2 parent households

Measures: * demographics; mothers completed Achenbach Child Behavior Inventory; children were interviewed about their experiences of violence; Conflict Tactics Scale given to mother re father, and child re mother; Parenting Stress Index completed by mother

*Risk factors counted: see p. 37

Results: *Palestinian children had same incidence of behavior problems as US children exposed to chronic violence

*Accumulation of risk evident: see p. 39 chart; as risks went over 4 children went over threshold into clinical dysfunction

effects of political violence on palestinian children cont1
Effects of political violence on Palestinian children (cont).
  • Results (cont):
    • Gender, age, and community context did not multiply risk; but in context of high risk, boys and younger children showed more risk (p. 39).
    • Children are much more resilient to community violence in a context of functional families
  • Theoretical context and conclusions:
    • Independence, responsibility, and an absence of overprotection are associated with resiliency for girls while structure, rules, parental supervision and male role model are associated with resiliency for boys
    • Trauma is associated with overwhelming affects and cognitions - younger children are therefore more vulnerable to accumulation of risk
    • Children in families fraught with conflict experience profound accumulation of risk when then faced with political violence
workshops for peace in palestine and new delhi
Workshops for Peace in Palestine and New Delhi
  • Global Convention on Peace and Nonviolence New Delhi, January 31 - February 1, 2004
  • Workshops on peace and nonviolent conflict resolution, Palestine
representations of the individual post communist perspective
Representations of the individual: Post-Communist perspective
  • Research question: Can living under two different systems (Western European individualism and Soviet collectivism) lead to different social representations of the individual?
  • Background
    • Values of individualism grounded in Renaissance and humanism (798);
      • have roots in economic (Weber), philosophical humanistic [Kant “rationality, intentional activity and autonomous thought are supreme capacities of human beings, i.e. they are the End in Itself” 800] and
      • political theories (Locke, “society arises through the voluntary contract of individuals trying to maximise their own self-interests” 800}, heritage of US constitution and UN Declaration of Human Rights
    • Is post-modern Western “glorification” of the individual “a threat to civilisation and society” (804)?
      • People lack and need the fulfillment of a purpose beyond themselves and a sense of social connectedness
representations of the individual post communist perspective1
Representations of the individual: Post-Communist perspective
  • Under Soviets, totalitarian collectivism was an ideology forced on citizens, to which they were made to conform (802).
        • Freedom of individual was a luxury for the future, present regarded in terms of ensuring victory of proletariat (Class struggle)(803);
        • ‘herd mentality’ with loss of individual freedoms and often persecution of dissidents resulted (803)
  • Theory: “social representations are forms of thinking and of activities based on ‘folk logic’. They are formed, maintained and changed by both implicit and explicit processes; they have both performative and constructive functions”
    • some are stable, some change over time (805)
    • They “prescribe socially shared definitions of social phenomena” which are “enacted” in language and other forms of communication (805)
representations of the individual post communist perspective2
Representations of the individual: Post-Communist perspective
  • Method: 6 countries compared (selected pragmatically not scientifically), with 1172 people participating
    • 2 word association tasks, both contained political, ideological, and economic terms, one with the word individual, the other without it
    • Questionnaire about respondents’ perceived freedom of choice in personal satisfaction, professional achievement, financial situation, and future planning
  • Data analysis:
    • of the word association tests occurred in the form of multidimensional scaling using matrices to represent proximity (808, 809)
    • Content analysis used to examine free associations
    • Then descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis (811)
representations of the individual post communist perspective3
Representations of the individual: Post-Communist perspective
  • Findings:
    • The positive form of individualism --associated with freedom, human rights, self-determination, democracy -- was not destroyed under Soviet rule
      • Perhaps because these values are needed for human survival (820)
    • Central Europeans regarded ‘the individual in a market economy’ more positively; Western Europeans regarded political systems more positively (821) - why do you think this is?
      • CE people also think they have more personal freedoms now than WE people do (consider that people evaluate such issues by comparison with their recent history 822)
  • “Interdependence between language and social representations” (823)
representations of the individual post communist perspective4
Representations of the individual: Post-Communist perspective
  • How might the differing representations of the individual in CE and WE influence social work practice?
  • What are some implications for global social work of the interdependence between language and social representations?
    • Consider that in Czech and Slovak languages, equivalents for term ‘community’ don’t exist (823)
    • The term individual has many variations in meaning (824)
    • Czechs and Slovaks associated individual with loneliness, also had experienced greatest repression under Soviets
discussion of learning to care for clients in their world ryan
Discussion of: Learning to care for clients in their world (Ryan)
  • Why is it challenging to learn how to deliver culturally sensitive care?
  • How did the students cope with immersion in a different culture?
  • What are the positive benefits of international immersion?
research issues for developing culturally appropriate social work practice kee
Research issues for developing culturally appropriate social work practice (Kee)
  • Define ‘authentization’ and its application for social workers in non-Western countries
  • How does the author define culture? Do you agree with it?
  • Describe the three central aspects of applying research cross-culturally: linguistic and conceptual equivalence, communication processes and styles in different cultures, and forming relationships with people
research from a global perspective
Research from a Global Perspective
  • Why, in global perspective, should we be concerned about research?
  • What are some of the challenges in conducting global social science research that has local relevance?
  • What are some of the hazards social science researchers face?
international social science research
International social science research
  • What are some differences between international research in the physical sciences as opposed to the social sciences?
  • What are some of the problems prioritized for the future of international social science research?
  • What is the potential future of international social science research?
global peace building efforts doyle and sambanis 2000
Global Peace-building Efforts(Doyle and Sambanis, 2000)
  • Definition:Peace-building addresses the sources of hostility and builds local capacities for conflict resolution. Conflicts are inevitable in plural democracies; peace-building aims “to foster the social, economic, and political institutions and attitudes that will prevent these conflicts from turning violent. In effect, peace-building is the front line of preventive action.”
  • At the levels of community and national systems, peace-building strategies
    • 1) address the local sources of hostility and promote respect for ethnic, religious, and racial differences,
    • 2) develop local capacities for change (local economic resources, political participation, civil society institutions, social capital), and
    • 3) evaluate and build the international commitment available to assist change.
clinical social workers play an essential role in peace building
Clinical Social Workers play an Essential Role in Peace-building
  • Many examples indicate that policy-making is not enough: Social and psychological changes need to occur at a grassroots level before, during, and after peace agreements are signed (Maoz, 2004).
  • Even in countries (e.g., Thailand, Lithuania) where there is relative stability, a profession of social work, and policies promoting human rights and welfare, many social workers and other professionals lack the clinical skills of U.S. clinical social workers to help carry out human rights policies.
clinical social work advances peace building via
Clinical Social Work Advances Peace-building via:
  • Reducing hostilities:
    • Healing the psychosocial impact of traumatic experiences
    • Understanding, preventing, and remedying people’s inhumanity to each other
  • Advancing local capacities for change in the direction of democracy
    • Developing people’s self-determination, affirming their motives for truth, justice, and compassion
    • Building the institutions of civil society
bucharest early intervention project zeanah et al
Bucharest Early Intervention Project (Zeanah et al.)
  • Historical background: Communist dictatorship, required all women under 40 to produce 5 children, which with poverty led to overwhelming orphan institutionalized population
  • Current conditions: Low wages, poverty, unemployment, civil inequities, and judicial and political corruption; only very recent accession to EU
  • Orphanage conditions were “appalling” human rights violations; international efforts to remedy them were initially very intrusive
  • Considerable human rights, ethical issues when orphans are subjects
bucharest early intervention project zeanah et al 2
Bucharest Early Intervention Project (Zeanah et al.) (2)
  • Study: randomized controlled trial of impact of institutional and foster care on:
  • 136 institutionalized children ages 5-31 mos evaluated on multiple developmental dimensions.
  • 50% randomly assigned to foster care.
  • Comparison group: 72 never-institutionalized children from Bucharest community
  • Data collection: developmental measures, videotapes while playing and with caregivers, EEGs, evoked potentials
bucharest early intervention project zeanah et al 3
Bucharest Early Intervention Project (Zeanah et al.) (3)
  • Ethical issues addressed by:
    • More than half of funding went to interventions for children rather than research
    • Study planned to provide information to local child welfare policymakers (not just scholarly publications)
    • To minimize cultural intrusiveness, study team included local and Romanian federal child welfare policy-makers from its inception, as well as a Romanian NGO committed to de-instiutionalization of Romanian orphans
  • “What makes clinical research ethical?” p. 566
  • Fair benefits, collaborative partnership, transparency (p. 566)
discussion of the new face of terrorism
Discussion of: The New Face of Terrorism
  • What are the characteristics of individuals who become terorrists?
  • What are the psychological processes used by terrorist groups to enforce obedience and compliance in their followers?
  • What are the most effective measures one can use to combat terrorism?
international social policy
International social policy
  • Definition of social policy: “Principles, procedures, and courses of action established in statute, administrative code and agency regulation that affect people’s social well-being” (Healey quoting Dear, p. 219)
  • Domestic level: policies that have global impact: ex. Immigration laws and NAFTA (US)
  • Global level: policies formulated by international intergovernmental bodies: ex. Human rights legislation in UN
  • Issues in cross-national comparative policy analysis:
    • Accuracy and comparability of data across nations
    • Different definitions of terms and concepts
    • Cultural differences in values that underlie policies, political environment, and process of policy-making
influencing social policy
Influencing social policy
  • What are the different levels of social policy?
  • What are some ways that domestic and international social policies interface?
  • What are some activities social workers can undertake to influence social policy (give examples, see Healey p. 226 ff):
    • In their native countries
    • Internationally
transferability of welfare models examples from finland and estonia
Transferability of welfare models: Examples from Finland and Estonia
  • How do social policies get transferred from one country to another (use specific examples)?
  • What structural factors foster policy development?
  • How does cultural diffusion foster policy development?
legacy of the south african truth and reconciliation commission
Legacy of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • TRC purposes:
    • Mandated by interim government of Mandela and de Klerk (540), context of strife between African National Congress and National Party
    • Memorialization of victims of human rights violations: “demand for human rights instituted by force of law” (545)
    • “distill truth into reconciliation, suffering into forgiveness, historical strife into national identity, and word into divinity” (531)
  • What do we learn about memorialization?
    • Case of Ahmed Timol, political activist who was murdered under apartheid, facts of his death covered in lies (532)
    • “We use their names to remember the larger picture of which they were a part” (535)
    • “South African society wanted to relieve itself of the burden of its disappeared, through forms of speech and action that would make them reappear” (535)
truth and reconciliation commission cont
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (cont)
  • Collective Mourning
    • Making the dead present by identifying with them: what if they were here, what would they want?
    • Finding a way to go on living without the dead loved ones: the dead loved one comes to represent an ideal type
    • Memorializing the name into the future compensates for the unfairly truncated life
  • Transitional justice: unique to nations transitioning “from authoritarian regimes characterized by gross violations of human rights to … liberal democracies” (539)
    • Need to punish perpetrators and strengthen rule of law
    • Need for social healing through public reconciliation
    • Build the moral capital of the new regime through “spectacles of transition” (539)
    • “delicately appease” old regime to prevent a coup
    • Strengthen the new regime
truth and reconciliation commission cont1
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (cont)
  • Qualified Amnesty (541):
    • “proportionality” standard used to distinguish crimes motivated by individual hatred and those motivated by larger political aims (541)
    • Provided an alternative to civil war
    • Promoted ‘moral awe’ as social attitude (541)
  • Setting the agenda in a transitional society is about cultural attitudes as well as constitutional and civic issues (542), which TRC established
    • Timol’s name “institutes the moral authority of remembrance” (543) and a school in his name was “a demand for justice to take place within civil society” because Black South-Africans had been depived of education under apartheid
    • Emphasis on victim dignity
    • “reimagining” the “terms of citizenship”
    • Providing a public focus for debate (rather than violence), resulted in “solidification of political agreement between warring parties” (544)
consciousness raising and community development freire
Consciousness-raising and community development (Freire)
  • Context: literacy education in Recife, Brazil
  • Problem: internalization of viewpoint of oppressor about onself, one’s future, and one’s community
  • Results: passivity, despair
  • Remedy: group affirmation of common experiences of oppression, ‘naming,’ compounding individual power through group support
  • Results: motivation for self-education, community strengthening and development, affirmation of chosen cultural values, group action to advance justice
social exclusion
Social exclusion
  • Defines a ‘new poverty’ characterized by rupture between individual and society in context of rapid technological change (Healey, p. 273)
  • “loss of solidarity as part of a population no longer participates in significant opportunities available in a society” (273)
  • Defined globally in terms of gaps between richest and poorest nations
  • Examples: refugees, street children, with poverty as major defining feature
balancing economic and social development
Balancing economic and social development
  • Human capital development: ‘investments in people that increase productivity’
  • Social capital development: ‘capacity-building in communities’, building on indigenous groups
  • Encouragement of self-employment and other productive employment efforts (Healey, p. 268)
grameen bank
Grameen Bank
  • Underlying philosophy
    • “poverty is the absence of all human rights”
    • peace cannot be viable when poverty exists
    • People who are poor are most vulnerable to victimization by unscrupulous lenders, corrupt public officials, or terrorist leaders
    • Fighting poverty is the best way to fight terrorism
    • people who are poor can be entrusted to honor loans and better themselves and their families: “once the poor can unleash their energy and creativity, poverty will disappear very quickly” (6)
    • Facts about world poverty (see p. 1): “Globalization must not become financial imperialism” (5)
    • “we can reconfigure our world if we reconfigure our mindset” (5)
  • How Yunus started Grameen Bank
    • Loaning his own money to his neighbors (next door to his campus!) in Bangladesh to help them get free of enslaving money-lenders
    • Donations grew and poor increasingly ran it
    • The bank became self-supporting as people repaid loans
grameen bank 2
Grameen Bank - 2
  • 7 million borrowers by 2006 (30 years), mostly women - 80% of Bangladesh families reached
  • Repayment rate is 99%
  • Loans totalled about 6 billion
  • The bank is self-supporting and makes a profit
  • 58% of its borrowers have crossed the poverty line
  • Women sent children to school, bank now gives 30,000 scholarships every year; 13,000 students have student loans, with 7,000 per year
  • They created Grameen phone (mobile phone company) to bring ICT to poor people - the goal is to give majority ownership to the poor women of Grameen bank
  • He proposes a ‘social business’ - as a solution to contemporary economic problems (p. 4)
“Terror, silencing, and children: International multidisciplinarycollaboration with Guatemalan Maya communities” (Lykes, 1994)
  • Nature of genocidal racism by “Ladinos” against Mayans: Guatemalan army during the 1980s
    • Murdered roughly 100,000 Guatemalan Mayans,
    • 38,000 “disappeared”,
    • 400 villages destroyed,
    • Hundreds of thousands forced to flee to Mexico, Belize, and United States,
    • Ongoing campaign of terror including mutilation of publicly displayed bodies, arrests, kidnapping;
  • Creative Workshops for Children (international mental health collaboration between Argentina, US, and Guatemala) provided therapeutic workshops for traumatized Mayan children
    • Reconceptualized understanding of trauma to include ongoing societally-induced trauma
    • Therapeutic model included creative expression, oral storytelling, dramatization to facilitate self-expression by children, emphasis on creating a safe space, incorporating indigenous traditions, supporting development of community-based services
terror silencing and children 2
“Terror, silencing, and children” - 2
  • Impact of interventions:
    • Developing more understanding of the impact of genocidal racism on children
      • “Silencing” was enforced and was also a survival effort by those persecuted but then interfered with ability to mourn loss and communities’ efforts to organize against genocide
      • “World, self and voice are lost or almost lost in the intense pain of torture” (p. 4)
      • The boundaries between truth and fiction are blurred as victims experience being forced to accept lies that the genocide and ongoing terror are not happening
    • Group workshops offered alternative safe communities
    • Goals of interventions: Helping child survivors express tensions related to the traumas and develop identities apart from the “dehumanizing” impact of the traumatic experiences
terror silencing and children 3
“Terror, silencing and children” - 3
  • Effects of interventions, cont.
    • Children portrayed through creative media, including collages from materials collected in their villages, scenes of their experiences (e.g. tanks, airplanes, soldiers)
    • State-sponsored violence, economic inequality, and racism must be changed at the national level; while psychosocial work at community level facilitates internal changes, when there are still ongoing traumas happening such work on a temporary basis has a limited impact (p. 18)
  • Research serves the goal of truth-telling and advocacy: “this work alerts those who read it to the war that is being waged in the name of national security against a native population and of the genocide that continues despite the mask of ‘democracy.’” (p. 19)
devising practice standards for aboriginal out of home care
Devising Practice Standards for Aboriginal Out-of-home Care
  • Context:
    • What is the situation of aboriginal peoples in Australia?
      • Concern expressed by Aboriginal leaders about appointment of white Children’s Guardian
      • Over-representation of Aboriginal children in child welfare system
  • Self-determination:
    • White Australian definition: freedom of choice (individual)
    • Aboriginal: collective right to achieve reasonable standard of living, ensure being able to do things in Aboriginal way, be free of White domination
  • Why are practice standards important in child welfare policy?
  • Who develops them and why is it important to include multiple cultural groups in standard development?
devising practice standards for aboriginal out of home care 2
Devising Practice Standards for Aboriginal Out-of-home Care 2
  • Office of the Children’s Guardian, Australia:
    • Evaluating out-of-home care
    • Advocating for children’s rights
    • Ensuring respect for children’s cultures of origin
  • Partnership model for developing standards
    • Led to insights about challenges facing Aboriginal out-of-home care agencies
    • University partnership that framed drafts of standards in concert with Aboriginal peoples and in their language
  • Standards available for public review and revision:
aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice in australia
Aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice in Australia
  • Premise: there is a connection between microinjustices and collective case of aboriginal communities as victims (289)
  • Context: disenfranchising aborigines through expropriating land rights, violence against them, prohibiting tribal cultural practices (282); public controversy about official recognition of these crimes
  • Restorative justice: Defined, p. 279, emphasis on relationships damaged by crime, and strategies for repairing them
  • Characteristic processes:
    • Informal setting, more flexible procedure, guilt admitted
    • Diversionary conference (280)
    • Four key aspects: accountability, apology, voice, reconciliation (280ff)
aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice in australia1
Aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice in Australia
  • Authors are advocating broader notion of restorative justice to accommodate structural, collective, and historical injustices
  • Deliberative Poll on reconciliation in Canberra:
    • conference including disproportionately more aboriginal representatives, in English (with translators available), small group discussions and open sessions
    • Community spirit was established
    • Goal of apology not achieved; debates:
      • Apologizing suggests personal culpability
      • without financial reparation, is apology only superficial? (285)
    • Successful reconciliation entails: more outreach of white Australians to learn aboriginal cultures and include them in educational curricula (286)
  • What would be restored in collective restorative justice? (287)
  • Microjustice and macrojustice (Roy, 288)
  • Concern that reconciliation not turn into manipulation to preserve the status quo (289)
advancing human rights policy example of chiapas
Advancing human rights policy: Example of Chiapas
  • Consider the history of working to advance human rights in Mexico.
  • Define civil society. What is its function in advancing human rights?
  • What occurs in the ‘low intensity war’ waged by the government military forces against the indigenous people of Chiapas? what are the consequences of this war?
  • What has been the role of indigenous women in the struggle for human rights and what are some results of their efforts?
  • What is the meaning of the conclusion that “state policy agendas must be consistent with indigenous values; otherwise, indigenous people will seek alternative institutions to promote democratic principles” (p. 86).
Zapatista liberation army



advocating for human rights in vieques puerto rico
Advocating for human rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico
  • What were the health consequences for the Viequenses of continued exposure to US war-simulation exercises?
  • What organizations were developed to advocate for cessation of military exercises in Vieques?
  • What was the new strategy of the community organization effort?
  • What specific activities did they undertake to accomplish their goals?
preventing aids in china and south africa
Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • What factors are associated with participating in HIV-STD prevention activities among rural-to-urban Chinese immigrants?
    • Context: Population mobility associated with increased risk for HIV infection because of:
      • lack of knowledge about HIV risk,
      • instability of sexual partners in mobile populations,
      • unemployment and reliance on jobs as sex workers
      • Return to community of origin then spreads HIV
      • High-risk behaviors are highly stigmatized in Chinese culture
    • China is in early stages of AIDS epidemic
  • Method: surveyed a sample of 4,208 migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, ages 18-30, recruited in public places, primarily Han Chinese ethnicity; logistic regression statistical analysis used
preventing aids in china and south africa1
Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • Findings:
    • The more people know about HIV, the more likely they are to participate in prevention
    • The more people engage in high-risk behaviors (engaging in high risk sexual behaviors, using drugs), the less likely they are to participate
    • Risk of peer involvement or stigma discouraged people from participating
    • Those who migrated because they wanted to learn about the outside world were also more willing to participate
  • Knowledge is necessary but not sufficient to foster behavior-change and motivation; reducing stigma is important in increasing participation
  • Those with the highest risk behaviors are most difficult to recruit into health care and promotion
preventing aids in china and south africa2
Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • South African context: prevalence rate of HIV infection 22.4% among pregnant women; 12.5% for all South Africans
  • Experimental design: do students exposed to intensive teacher-led interventions have more knowledge about HIV and AIDS prevention, use safer sex, and reduced stigma towards those with AIDS?
  • Sample: 9th graders in 22 schools in KwaZulu-Natal; Statistical and process analysis
  • Findings:
    • Student knowledge increased significantly but safer sex practices did not
    • Teachers implemented the program variably, those who used it more were more effective in increasing safe sex practices
peace building in violent conflict maoz 2004
Peace-building in Violent Conflict (Maoz, 2004)
  • Context: 1993 Oslo peace accords between Israelis and Palestinians have broken down (p. 565)- so How can the goals of peacebuilding be realized when there is no peace-making?
  • Overall strategy: “dialogues and joint people-to-people projects at the grassroots level that aim to transform the relations between the sides” (564)
  • Definition of peace-building:
    • “encompasses, generates, and sustains a full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform a conflict toward a more sustainable, peaceful relationship” (564)
    • examples of Northern Ireland and South African truth and reconciliation indicate that policy-making is not enough -- social and psychological changes need to occur at grassroots level before, during and after peace agreements are signed
peace building in violent conflict 2
Peace-building in Violent Conflict (2)
  • Aims of peacebuilding:
    • Transform the warlike behaviors of communities
    • Prevent relapse into violent conflict
    • Transformative dialogue (per Gergen et al): mutual listening, empathizing, “including the other in realm of relational moral responsibility” (565)
  • Peacebuilding activities include:
    • Single and long-term meetings, dialogues among schoolteachers, university students, professors, and other professionals
    • Workshops with youth (studied here, p. 566) by Israel-Palestine Center for Research and Information, an NGO
    • Resulted in participants experiencing each other as more ‘good hearted’‘tolerant’ and ‘considerate’ than they had before the workshops (567)
  • Organizations continuing to implement peace-building even after 2000 violence (568) - characterized by equality between participants from both sides of conflict:
    • Peace Research Institute in the Middle East
    • Israel-Palestine Center for Research and Information
    • Middle East Children Association
    • Crossing Borders
    • School for Peace
    • The Jerusalem Link
peace building in violent conflict 3
Peace-building in Violent Conflict (3)
  • Characteristics of peace-building organizations:
    • Equal representation of Israelis and Palestinians
    • Geographic location on West Bank not only in Israeli Jewish locations
    • Languages are English, Hebrew, and Arabic
  • Relevance of organizations’ work given lack of peace-making by political leaders (572):
    • “Maintain an infrastructure of constructive relationships between the sides”
    • “provide a support system for those of both sides that still believe in peace”
    • Prevent extremists from winning
    • Prevent mutual dehumanization by maintaining constructive interactions between both sides
services for children segal paper
Services for children (Segal paper)
  • Three categories: Developmental, preventative, or curative
  • Differences in beliefs about parental rights:
    • Japan’s tradition of Shinken (parents’ rights and duty to protect the child)
    • compared with US -- Illinois Best Interests of the Child Act
  • Values and resource allocation:
    • Japan has committed resources to to universal maternal and child health and child-rearing support
    • US has not and consequently has 16% of children under poverty line with higher rates of juvenile delinquency, teen pregnancy, substance abuse as well as higher infant mortality
empowerment in difficulty
Empowerment in difficulty
  • Background: child welfare in Romania (471)
    • Responses to crisis in child care: adoption, improving local institutions (471)
    • International relief, 1991-1994
    • 1993 National Committee for Child Protection founded, National Plan of Action for Children (1995), ultimately resulting in child welfare legislation and public agency
  • Problems in international intervening:
    • Lack of coordination of NGOs (471)
    • Criticism of local caregivers (472)
    • Lack of recognition of community poverty
    • Staff not provided with training/development (472)
    • Relief agencies left in 1994, conditions became more grim outside institutions
  • What organizations were involved in the intervention?
empowerment in difficulty 2
Empowerment in difficulty (2)
  • What are the six principles of empowerment that guided the intervention practice?
    • A vision,
    • self-determination (477),
    • focus on strengths (477),
    • “universality of social conditions” such as poverty (477),
    • “developmental” – public policy component (478),
    • community context (478)
  • What obstacles did the international team encounter and how did they respond to them?
    • Relevance of instructional materials (479)
    • Empowering Romanians to use own problem-solving skills (479) (transitional from totalitarian domination)
    • Legacies of Communist-era management and organizational styles (483)
    • Respecting traditions (485)
international orphan crisis and solutions
International Orphan Crisis and Solutions
  • 100 million destitute children worldwide: why?
    • Depletion of extended family because of migration, Westernization, AIDS, demographic changes; remaining families are less willing take orphans
    • Cultural values against adoption
      • Africa: beliefs that adopting children imports alien spirits into the family, fears that children will be enslaved
      • Fear of inadequate genes, disruption of familial line (Asia)
      • National efforts at population control with bias against girl children
    • Adopted children may be regarded as 2nd class in the family and more prone to maltreatment, even indentured servitude
    • AIDS crisis, genocide, famines: 650,000 children orphaned by AIDS in Kenya (2004)
    • Many African and other underdeveloped countries have not yet developed national policy responses to their orphan crises
    • Over-representation of African American children in US child welfare system
  • Some children are sold into slavery conditions (estimated 75,000/year)
  • Recognition that institutionalization has many negative effects including PTSD, mental health problems, developmental delays, inadequate socialization
international orphan crisis and solutions 2
International Orphan Crisis and Solutions (2)
  • Proposed solutions:
    • Family-based foster orphan care (but it does not provide a child with a permanent family)
    • Sustainable community-based programs (CBOs) to care for children
  • International adoption is one solution; issues:
      • Need for heightened regulation due to gray or blackmarket practices
      • Transracial adoptions and child’s cultural identity formation: preference for adoptions by families of the same race and culture according to NABSW and UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
      • Problem of lack of research on the process and outcomes; existing research about impact of transracial adoption on children’s self-esteem and identity has contradictory findings
international orphan crisis and solutions 3
International Orphan Crisis and Solutions (3)
  • Adoption in the US:
    • Most people in US approve of transracial adoptions - Multiethnic Placement Act (1994) and Removal of Barriers to Interethnic Adoption Act (2002) prohibit race from being a primary factor in public adoptions
    • In 2005 in US 22,000 children have been adopted from other countries, primarily China, Russia, Guatemala, South Korea, Ukraine and the rate has been rising - why?
      • Increased adoption in general, as domestic adoptions in US have also increased by 64% from 1997-2002
      • Some parents hesitant about adopting older children with histories of abuse and neglect or maternal substance abuse
      • Concerns about open adoption policies
      • Humanitarian concern for children whose lives are in jeopardy in other countries
    • Process: immigration visas, homestudies, proof that child was an orphan in sending country
    • Hague Convention ratified in 2000, provisions to be implemented now
guatemalan perceptions of adoption
Guatemalan perceptions of adoption
  • Rapid increase in Guatemalan children adopted by US couples
  • Sensationalist reports of corruption but little actual research, esp about local perceptions of Guatemalan adoption
  • Method: interviews of 23 Guatemalans, most were parents, diverse SES, from Antigua
    • Reasons for giving children up for adoption: Poverty, paternal abandonment, risk of infant death, concern about inadequate attention in orphanages or abandoned child’s life on the streets, belief that adopted children are treated well
guatemalan perceptions of adoption 2
Guatemalan perceptions of adoption (2)
  • Respondents endorsed the view that adopted children could have a good future in US
  • Some concerns about trafficking, stolen children, fear of organ donation
  • In Guatemala, fear of ‘bad blood’ and machismo (not wanting another man’s children in the home) can interfere with domestic adoptions
  • Wealthy Guatemalans are not indigenous; most children placed for adoption are indigenous
studying communities informal care and welfare systems in asian pacific countries
Studying Communities’ Informal Care and Welfare Systems in Asian-Pacific Countries
  • What are informal care and welfare systems and why are they important? (439)
  • What were the aims of the project? (441)
  • Who was involved in carrying out this study? (444)
  • What were the central findings of the project?
  • How was the project evaluated?
should global social work have a clinical dimension
Should global social work have a clinical dimension?

Is there a need for it? Examples:

    • Suicide prevention (Pelkonen & Martunen)
      • Suicide was the cause of death among 34% of teenage males in Finland and is major problem worldwide
      • Psychosocial treatments effective; and social isolation and alienation as well as parent mental illness and relationhip problems are major contributors
    • Helping psychiatric patients before hospitalization (Chadda et al)
      • Interconnectedness of social networks powerfully influences cultural values around causes of problems and help-seeking and thus help-seeking behavior
      • Availability of professional mental health care, socioeconomic resources, also powerfully affect help-seeking
  • How to regulate quality:
    • Training programs giving certificates/degrees
    • Government recognition of individuals, modalities, and professions
    • Reimbursement standards set by government or private insurance
    • State-regulated licensure with continuing credentials
for continuing education about human rights issues and global social work practice see
For continuing education about human rights issues and global social work practice see:
  • UN High Commission on Human Rights:
  • Human Rights Watch:
  • Amnesty International:,
  • General:
the relation between social work theory and practice in hong kong
The relation between social work theory and practice in Hong Kong
  • Notice the government proposal to set social service standards. Do you think this is desirable for your country (p. 543)?
  • “Theory guides practice which in turn validates and modifies theory” (p. 548). Do you agree? Why or why not?
  • What contextual factors are influencing the development of social work theory in your country (try to be specific about the contextual factor and the theory)?
conflict resolution across the lifespan
Conflict Resolution across the Lifespan
  • “Our approach focuses on reorienting people from viewing conflict as a negative and destructive occurrence, to seeing the potential, when it exists, for positive change and growth” (p. 33). Can you think of examples in your own practice of when conflict can be used for positive change and growth?
  • Summarize the way the ICCR uses the following interventions:
    • Peer mediation programs
    • Conflict resolution training in curriculum
    • Cooperative learning and constructive controversy in classroom learning
    • Instruction of adults to shift the culture towards cooperation
synthesizing a model of global social work practice for social workers starting from the u s
Synthesizing a model of global social work practice for social workers starting from the U.S.
  • What have your learned are some of the key issues you need to be aware of as a U.S. social worker working with professionals and lay persons in other countries?
  • What is historical trauma and why is it important to understand it when working with persons in other countries?
  • How would you as a social worker approach planning your work with persons in a community in a country with which you are unfamiliar?
spirituality and social work practice
Spirituality and social work practice
  • Histories specific to a country of relationship between religious traditions and spirituality and broader cultural values
  • Context of Latvia:
    • Family wholeness and ecology
    • Spirituality as a perspective that is supportive of families
  • Comments on the context of Lithuania
    • “Lietuva Brange” and farewell for this year…