Review for Midterm 3. What we have discussed after Midterm 2. Tropical cyclones Airmasses , fronts, and mid-latitude cyclones Tropical and e xtratropical climate Weather and climate prediction (Not required) Heat island effect (Not required ) Air pollution (Not required)
Quantity Name Units Symbol
Length meter m m
Mass kilogram kg kg
Time second s s
Temperature Kelvin K K
Density kilogram kg/m3 kg/m3
per cubic meter
Speed meter per m/s m/s
Force newton m.kg/s2 N
Pressure pascal N/m2 Pa
Energy joule N.m J
Power watt J/s W
nano one-billionth 10-9 0.000000001
micro one-millionth 10-6 0.000001
milli one-thousandth 10-3 0.001
centi one-hundredth 10-2 0.01
deci one-tenth 10-1 0.1
deka ten 101 10
hecto one hundred 102 100
kilo one thousand 103 1000
mega one million 106 1000000
giga one billion 109 1000000000
In mid-latitude there is aboundary between northern cold air and southern warm air
In the boundary an initial cyclone can advect warm air northward and cold air southward
If theupper level low is to the west of surface low, the cyclone will amplify and precipitation will form.
Mature stage. Cold air begins to catch up with warm air (occluded).
Cold air cools down the cyclone. Dissipation.
2 basic regions
Indo-Pacific warm pool
Eastern Pacific cold tongue
Human beings are changing the global climate system in three different ways:
Global atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 have increased markedly as a result of human activities since 1750 and now far exceed pre-industrial values determined from ice core measurements spanning the last 650,000 years!
Glacier retreat is a world-wide phenomena.
The GCMs can reproduce the 20th century temperature trend
The warming is caused by anthropogenic forcings!
Global map of projected change Temperature: Largest warming over Arctic, larger over land Precipitation: Increase in tropics/poles, decrease in mid-latitudes
The developed countries and developing countries contribute almost equally to the emissions of GHGs.